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05-13-19 Town Council Work SessionTown Council Monday, May 13, 2019 4:00 PM 130 Kearns Road Council Chambers Agenda 1.Start Time 4:00 P.M. 2.Item for Discussion 2.1.JOINT MEETING WITH THE ENVIRONMENTAL ADVISORY BOARD Emissions Inventory Agenda Summary Joint Mtg EAB Page 2 Attachment A 2017 CO Emission Inventory Report Page 3 3.Adjournment 1 Town of Snowmass Village Agenda Item Summary DATE OF MEETING: May 13, 2019 AGENDA ITEM: Joint Meeting with the Environmental Advisory Board (EAB) PRESENTED BY: Andrew Wickes, EAB, Chair Debbie Shore, EAB Carol Gaudin, EAB Joseph Goodman, EAB Linda Giudice, EAB Sarah Gruen, EAB (CORE Specialty Member) Mike Steiner, EAB (Holy Cross Specialty Member) Travis Elliott, Assistant to the Town Manager Nick Kertz, Facilities Maintenance Superintendent Julie Louderback, Public Works Administrative Assistant BACKGROUND: As requested by the Town Council, Monday’s meeting will be a joint work session with the EAB. This is meant to be an informal conversation to support the Town Council’s goal to increase communication and listening opportunities with the Town’s advisory boards. The EAB would also like to take the opportunity to get to know each other, discuss progress towards current initiatives, and provide direction on future goals. To serve as context to this broader conversation, attached is the Town’s latest carbon emission inventory update (2017). This latest inventory shows the community has successfully reduced emissions approximately 17% over the 2009 baseline. CORE, who prepared the inventory on behalf of the Town, will be present at the meeting to discuss the report in more detail. 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 2 of 22 2 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 PRODUCED BY THE COMMUNITY OFFICE FOR RESOURCE EFFICIENCY PUBLISHED MAY 2019 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 3 of 22 3 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 2 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 3 2017 Results Summary Key Findings A Low-Carbon Future CARBON FOOTPRINT 6 Buildings Transportation Aviation Waste NEXT STEPS 11 The Town is Leading the Charge Make an Impact ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 13 APPENDICES 14 Appendix A: Inventory Background Appendix B: Measuring Emissions Appendix C: Summary Comparison Appendix D: Summary Table (2017) Appendix E: Summary Table (2014) Appendix F: Summary Table (2009) Appendix G: Aspen Pitkin County Airport Inventory 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 4 of 22 4 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 3 INTRODUCTION The Town of Snowmass Village has a history of prioritizing environmental protection and sustainability. In recognition of the serious threat posed by climate change and the responsibility to act, forward-thinking leaders and elected officials committed to do something about it. The Town pledged to tread more lightly and contribute to a healthier, more thriving planet through energy conservation and green building, addressing mobility challenges, improving water and air quality, and more. To assess the impacts of these environmental sustainability actions, the Town committed the Snowmass Village community to the goal of generating 20 percent less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2020 (as compared to 2009). This commitment encompasses the environmental impact of everyday activities, such as the energy used in homes and businesses; cars, trucks, and buses that move around town; and the waste that ends up at the landfill. To monitor progress toward the 20 percent reduction goal and continue to identify climate-related solutions, the Town regularly collects and analyzes emissions data. The findings are published via an emissions inventory report, which describes the community’s estimated carbon footprint. The 2017 Snowmass Village Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Report is the third of its kind for the town, following published reports in 2009 and 2014 (see updated summaries in Appendix E and Appendix F). Together, these three emissions reference points paint a picture of progress. 2017 RESULTS SUMMARY In 2017, the Snowmass Village community generated 108,840 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (mtCO2e), a 17 percent reduction from the 2009 baseline of 130,835 mtCO2e. This places the community’s emissions on a downward trajectory, ahead of pace to meet its 2020 goal. EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS OVER TIME (MTCO2e) 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 2009 2014 2017 2020 [Goal] 130,835 124,048 108,840 104,668 A 17 PERCENT REDUCTION SINCE 2009! 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 5 of 22 5 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 4 The inventory estimates carbon pollution from four primary categories: BUILDINGS: the energy used to heat and power buildings TRANSPORTATION: the fuel used in cars, trucks, and public transit AVIATION: the fuel used in aircraft and airport operations WASTE: emissions from the decomposition of trash and landfill operations EMISSIONS BY SOURCE (2017) KEY FINDINGS • The reduction goal of 20 percent by 2020 is within reach for the Snowmass Village community. • The majority of emissions are from the energy used in buildings, which accounted for 76 percent of the community’s total GHG emissions in 2017, and therefore represent the largest opportunity for emissions reductions. • Emissions from electricity declined 34 percent between 2009 and 2017, primarily due to Holy Cross Energy’s commitment to a greener grid and local energy conservation actions. • The greatest increase in emissions was from aviation-related activity. An increase in airport operations and flight distance resulted in a corresponding increase in the total fuel dispensed at the Aspen Pitkin County Airport (ASE), and therefore an increase in overall emissions. • There were more cars and trucks on the road in 2017 compared to 2014. This led to increased emissions from the transportation sector. • The amount of organic materials (food scraps and yard debris) in the waste stream has declined, likely due to composting programs, spurring a decline in total emissions from household trash. It’s worth noting the over-sized influence Holy Cross Energy has had in helping the Snowmass Village community work towards meeting its emissions reduction goal. To demonstrate the impact of the electric grid, imagine the carbon intensity of the grid remained constant between 2009 and 2017: the 2009 energy portfolio was composed of 13 percent renewable energy, compared with 39 percent in 2017. Under this scenario, the overall emissions reduction in Note: Wastewater treatment is not included in this summary chart or inventory report as the emissions generated account for less than 1 percent of total emissions. 4% 76% 9% 11% 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 6 of 22 6 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 5 only 1 percent, compared with 17 percent the community experienced. This raises questions around who should shoulder the weight of emissions reduction responsibility. A LOW-CARBON FUTURE The threat of climate change is enormous and urgent. Encouragingly, a thriving, low-carbon future is possible with immediate and signficant action. Again, and again, cities around the world are proving that emissions reductions can occur alongside population and economic growth. Portland, San Francisco, Chicago, and many more cities have disproved the myth that ambitious climate goals are bad for the economy. In fact, climate action generally confers a host of other community benefits, including greater resilience, improvements to public health, and increased environmental quality. Neighboring Aspen also has proven that climate action can coexist with a more thriving economy and community. Between 2004 and 2014, Aspen’s greenhouse gas emissions decreased 7.4 percent while retail sales increased 54.5 percent and population increased 5.5 percent. This further illustrates how actions such as commercial and residential construction, employment gains, and population growth are not at odds with emissions-reduction strategies. This inventory report drills into the areas that present opportunities for the greatest local emissions reductions. However, there is no silver bullet for tackling climate change. Actions around increasing carbon sequestration with grasslands and forests and changes in producing the food and goods we consume all contribute to limiting emissions. Community members may consider evaluating their own carbon footprint to better identify the most important action they can take. In the Next Steps section of this report, we will further discuss the subsequent phases of emissions reduction. 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 7 of 22 7 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 6 CARBON FOOTPRINT Between 2009 and 2017, Snowmass Village successfully reduced overall emissions. Emissions from buildings have decreased 24 percent since 2009. Still, this category continues to be the largest source of emissions. Transportation emissions have increased 6 percent; aviation-related emissions increased 60 percent. And waste emissions had the greatest decrease, at 28 percent. A number of factors drive the emissions changes. In many cases, specific causes of emissions reductions and increases are difficult to pin down. The following pages provide an overview of the factors that have affected each sector. BUILDINGS EMISSIONS TRENDS (MTCO2E) 125,000 100,000 75,000 50,000 25,000 0 2009 108,138 2014 2017 100,215 82,671 AVIATION EMISSIONS TRENDS (MTCO2E) 15,000 12,000 9,000 6,000 3,000 0 2009 7,743 2014 2017 9,456 12,393 TRANSPORTATION EMISSIONS TRENDS (MTCO2E) 15,000 12,000 9,000 6,000 3,000 0 2009 8,872 2014 2017 9,027 9,376 WASTE EMISSIONS TRENDS (MTCO2E) 15,000 12,000 9,000 6,000 3,000 0 2009 6,032 2014 2017 5,291 4,354 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 8 of 22 8 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 7 Building-sector emissions are from the energy used to heat and power homes and businesses. Emissions from the buildings sector totaled 82,671 mtCO2e in 2017, accounting for 76 percent of Snowmass Village’s emissions. Emissions from this sector have decreased 24 percent since 2009. KEY FINDINGS • Electricity has gotten greener. Holy Cross Energy’s electricity is increasingly generated by more renewable sources. In 2009, 13 percent of Holy Cross’s electricity mix was renewable energy. By 2017, that number increased to 39 percent renewable energy. • A cleaner electric grid significantly impacts emissions. Total electricity use has decreased only 3 percent since 2009, but total emissions from electricity use decreased 34 percent because of the greater renewable content of the electric grid and local solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. • More building emissions are from electricity (55 percent) than from natural gas (45 percent). As the electric grid gets cleaner, it is possible to reduce, and perhaps someday eliminate, carbon-based energy sources. • Businesses have a greater impact on emissions than homes. Businesses are responsible for 54 percent of energy emissions. Due to the limited number of buildings and the proportionally large amount of emissions, businesses represent the greatest opportunity for emissions reductions. • Advancing building codes and energy efficiency programs have been shown to decrease energy usage. Building homes sustainably from the start and retrofitting existing building stock are key to driving down energy consumption. 2017 EMISSIONS BY BUILDING TYPE BUILDINGS Businesses Homes Natural Gas Electricity 46%54% 2017 EMISSIONS BY ENERGY SOURCE 45%55% 76% Note: Emissions generated from propane consump- tion are less than 1 percent of the building sector and are not shown in this chart. 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 9 of 22 9 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 8 Transportation-sector emissions are from the fuel used in cars, trucks, and public transit. Emissions from the transportation sector totaled 9,376 mtCO2e, accounting for 9 percent of Snowmass Village’s emissions. Emissions from this sector have increased 6 percent since 2009. KEY FINDINGS • Motorists coming to and leaving Snowmass Village traveled more than 20 million vehicle miles in 2017. Location-based cell phone data was used to estimate the total vehicle trips made into and out of the community and the length of those trips. • The majority of trips are taken in passenger vehicles (cars and light trucks). Accordingly, the majority of emissions are also from passenger vehicles. Passenger vehicles account for 85 percent of total transportation sector emissions. • Vehicles are getting more efficient. State and federal fuel efficiency standards are getting stronger, which means cars burn less fuel to travel the same distance. • Electric vehicles make up a small, but growing, percentage of vehicles on the road. In 2017, only 1.5 percent of vehicles in Colorado were electric. 2017 TRANSPORTATION EMISSIONS BY SUBSECTOR TRANSPORTATION Passenger Vehicles Public Transit15% 85% 9% 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 10 of 22 10 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 9 Aviation-sector emissions are from the fuel dispensed to aircraft at the Aspen Pitkin County Airport (ASE) and its operations. Emissions from the aviation sector totaled 12,393 mtCO2e in 2017, accounting for 11 percent of Snowmass Village’s emissions. Emissions from this sector have increased 60 percent since 2009. KEY FINDINGS • ASE monitors emissions closely. ASE was one of the first airports in the United States to prepare this comprehensive of an emissions inventory, and has continued to regularly prepare inventories to identify opportunities to reduce emissions. Inventories have been developed for 2006, 2009, 2014, and most recently, 2017 (published in 2019). • Airplanes require a lot of fuel. The fuel loaded into aircraft (both private and commercial) represents the greatest share of aviation emissions. • ASE controls a limited portion of the aviation-related emissions. The Federal Aviation Administration and the airlines largely control the amount and type of aircraft fuel sold at ASE, which represents the vast majority of the emissions. • Emissions from sources owned and controlled by Pitkin County have actually decreased. While overall aviation emissions increased, these emissions are not under local control. Efforts by Pitkin County have decreased emissions over time in airport-owned elements such as ground support equipment and building energy. • There was growth in the number of flights and the distances flown, compared with 2014. Aircraft jet fuel sales in 2017 increased 40 percent over 2014 levels due to increased aircraft operations, and distances the aircraft are traveling. This is partly in response to Snowmass Village’s efforts to improve air travel to the resort and boost the tourism industry. • Only 20 percent of total ASE emissions are allocated to Snowmass Village. This number represents an estimate of the percentage of airport passengers that begin or end their trip in Snowmass Village. The responsibility for the emissions is shared among several local communities. 2017 AVIATION EMISSIONS BY SUBSECTOR AVIATION 11% Aircraft Fuel Airport Vehicles 94% 6% 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 11 of 22 11 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 10 Waste-sector emissions are from the decomposition of organic materials at the Pitkin County Landfill and the operation of the landfill. Emissions from the waste sector totaled 4,354 mtCO2e in 2017, accounting for 4 percent of Snowmass Village’s emissions. Emissions from this sector have decreased 28 percent since 2009. KEY FINDINGS • Fewer tons of food scraps and yard debris were sent to the landfill. In 2009, almost 44 percent of the waste stream was comprised of organic materials; that number dropped to 22 percent of the waste stream in 2017. This decline may be partly attributed to the growth of composting programs and more responsible waste habits. • When food scraps break down in the landfill, the carbon impact is greater. When organic materials decompose in a landfill, they release methane, a GHG that is more potent than carbon dioxide. When they decompose in a compost pile, they release less harmful GHG emissions and can be reused as compost. • Less recyclables were thrown in the garbage. Recycling represented 17 percent of the waste stream in 2017, as com- pared to 15 percent in 2014 and 14 percent in 2009, meaning less of this material was sent to the landfill and more was repurposed. • Construction activity means more building material is sent to the landfill. In 2017, 38,227 tons of debris from construc- tion and demolition projects (referred to as “C&D”) entered the Pitkin County Landfill. A portion of this was allocated to Snowmass Village. • C&D is the most significant emissions source. Emissions from C&D are greater than emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) or, more commonly, trash. • The collection and transportation of waste is also analyzed. The study estimates that only 2 percent of waste emissions are from the delivery of trash to the landfill. 2017 WASTE SUBSECTOR EMISSIONS WASTE 4% Other C&D MSW 2% 43% 55% 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 12 of 22 12 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 11 NEXT STEPS Moving forward, a community-wide inventory will be prepared every three years to provide greater insight into emissions trends. The inventory, in tandem with the 2015 Resiliency and Sustainability Plan Update, will continue to drive climate solutions across Snowmass Village. Together, the Snowmass Village community has made significant emissions reduction progress. It’s important to celebrate this success, while also recognizing that we need to do more to ensure a stable climate and thriving future. Everyone has a role to play in climate protection. Individual action, such as daily choices around riding the bus or driving, make a difference. Collective behaviors can add up to meaningful reductions in carbon emissions, especially when coupled with structural changes and innovative policy. THE TOWN IS LEADING THE CHARGE The Snowmass Village community can look to the Town for inspiration on how to achieve measurable and impactful emissions reductions. Between 2009 and 2017, the Town has achieved a 42% reduction in building energy usage and a 46% reduction in emissions across its buildings and facilities. This decrease occurred even as new energy draws, like electric vehicle chargers, came online. 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 2009 2014 2017 ELECTRIC GAS GHG EMISSIONS IN TOWN BUILDINGS (MTCO2E) In 2019, the Town will continue to address its carbon footprint by purchasing 100 percent clean electricity to power town facilities, making energy efficiency improvements in buildings it owns, and completing local renewable energy installations, among other initiatives. These projects are slated to make an even greater dent in emissions: estimates show community-wide emissions will be reduced by an additional 202 MTCO2e, with new renewable energy generation coming online equivalent to 247 MTCO2e. The Town will continue to measure, monitor and manage energy use across all facilities and identify opportunities to increase energy efficiency using their established a data-driven approach. 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 13 of 22 13 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 12 MAKE AN IMPACT To continue on the path to reduce carbon emissions 20 percent below 2009 levels by 2020, everyone must chip in. Encouragingly, the Snowmass Village community only needs to reduce emissions by 4,172 MTCO2e. What does this look like? There are so many ways to impact emissions. Below is a summary of the carbon impact of different actions. This information can be used to help strategize climate measures, programs, and policies. ACTION DETAILS ESTIMATED ANNUAL SAVINGS(MTCO2E) FUEL SWITCH Make a fuel switch (gas --> electricity)12.00 MTCO2e/household USE CLEAN ENERGY Enroll in Holy Cross Energy’s Pure Renewable Energy Purchase Program 4.28 MTCO2e/household FLY LESS Take one less flight a year 0.62 MTCO2e/person LED LIGHTS Light your home with LEDs 0.37 MTCO2e/household COMPOST Compost your food scraps 0.27 MTCO2e/household WALK OR BIKE Avoid one car trip per week 0.14 MTCO2e/person EVERYDAY ACTIONS MAKE A DIFFERENCE 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 14 of 22 14 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 13 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was prepared by the Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) on behalf of the Town of Snowmass Village. Since 1994, CORE has been helping the Roaring Fork Valley save energy and cut carbon emissions to mitigate climate change. Working together, we advance “CORE Values”: clean air, sustainable energy, stable climate, strong economy, and healthy community. This analysis relied on information and support from a variety of sources. A special thanks to Travis Elliott (Town of Snowmass Village) and other Snowmass Village staff for making this report possible. Patrick Picard (Fehr & Peers) and Hoi-Fei Mok (International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives) provided emissions data analysis and inventory support. The Aspen Pitkin County Airport’s emissions inventory was an invaluable resource. We are also grateful to the Snowmass Village Environmental Advisory Board for their contribution. Board members include Andrew Wickes (Chair), Carol Gaudin, Debbie Shore, Joseph Goodman, Mike Steiner, and Linda Giudice. Staff liaisons include Travis Elliott, Nick Kertz, and Julie Louderback. FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT: Travis Elliott, Assistant to the Town Manager, Snowmass Village, TElliott@tosv.com Sarah Gruen, Community Sustainability Manager, CORE, sarah@aspencore.org Graphic Design: Traci Shalow, Kindred Collective Editor: Catherine Lutz 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 15 of 22 15 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 14 APPENDIX A: INVENTORY BACKGROUND The inventory was completed in accordance with the U.S. Community Protocol for Accounting and Reporting of Greenhouse Gas Emissions developed by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). Following this industry-accepted standard ensures the inclusion of major emissions sources, consistency, and relevancy. Past inventories (2009 and 2014) have been revised to be cohesive with the current methodology. Updated inventory results are included as appendices (see Appendix E and Appendix F). The major update for the 2017 inventory is a more robust estimate of emissions related to vehicle traffic. Previous inventories have relied on assumptions about local travel habits and survey data from the Roaring Fork Transportation Authority. In 2017, AirSage origin-destination cellphone data was analyzed to better assess the length of trips that either originate or terminate within Snowmass Village. This greatly improves the accuracy of vehicle miles travelled estimates. Relevant assumptions were applied to the 2009 and 2014 inventories to better account for vehicle travel. We acknowledge that this estimate of emissions does not represent the entirety of emissions generated across the community. Some significant emissions sources that are not reflected in this report include the emissions generated from the creation of food and goods and the transportation of those products to Snowmass Village; the extraction and processing of natural gas; and the transmission and distribution of electricity. These and other activities are excluded from our analysis as they are either challenging to quantify or lack a robust accounting methodology. Nevertheless, it’s important to note that these activities contribute to the community’s overall climate impact and should be considered as part of emissions-reduction strategies. Another consideration is the carbon sequestration potential of forests. High Country Conservation and Summit County are developing an emissions accounting methodology to better account for how different forests can absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This may be incorporated into future inventory updates. This inventory accounts for the three most prevalent GHGs: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, and nitrous oxide. For uniform and consistent reporting, all inventory results are listed in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (mtCO2e). This measurement standard takes into account the global warming potential of each gas (heat-trapping ability and atmospheric lifespan) and represents it in terms of the amount of CO2 that would have the same impact. 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 16 of 22 16 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 15 APPENDIX B: MEASURING EMISSIONS To estimate emissions, activity data (e.g., the amount of waste generated, the amount of electricity consumed) is translated into GHG emissions using an emissions factor. According to the EPA, “an emissions factor is a representative value that attempts to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the atmosphere with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. These factors are usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant.” This analysis relies on locally specific and standard emissions factors. The methodology used to quantify emissions varies sector by sector and is dependent on data availability. Whenever possible, the approach recommended by the U.S. Community Protocol was applied. By way of example, here is an overview of how activity data and emissions factors were used to quantify emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) for the waste sector. 1. Determine how many tons of MSW are generated in homes and businesses. The Town of Snowmass Village Solid Waste and Recycling Division records tons collected. 2. Determine the characterization of the waste stream to estimate the amount of each material type collected (cardboard, paper, food scraps, etc.). 3. Multiply the material quantities by the standard GHG emissions factor for each material type for an estimate of total emissions. This approach varies dramatically according to sector. Emissions sources and key activity data for each sector are summarized below. EMISSIONS SOURCES SUMMARY SECTOR PRIMARY EMISSIONS SOURCES PRIMARY ACTIVITY DATA DATA SOURCES Buildings • Electricity use • Combustion of natural gas and propane • Total electricity use (kWh) • Total natural gas use (therms) • Total propane use (gallons) • Holy Cross Energy • Black Hills Energy • Ferrellgas and Amerigas Transportation • Combustion of diesel and gasoline in cars and trucks • Combustion of fuels in public transit • Vehicle miles traveled (est.) • Vehicle type distribution and fuel economy (est.) • Public transit mileage • AirSage data • Charlier & Associates Travel Study • RFTA • Snowmass Village Shuttle Aviation • Combustion of aircraft fuel • Aircraft fuel dispensed • Aspen Pitkin County Airport Waste • Methane emissions from decomposing organic waste • MSW collected • C&D sent to landfills (est.) • Waste characterization • Town of Snowmass Village Solid Waste and Recycling Division • Pitkin County Landfill Wastewater • Process N20 emissions • Fugitive nitrous oxide emissions from effluent discharge • Population served • Methods of wastewater treatment • Snowmass Water and Sanitation District 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 17 of 22 17 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 16 APPENDIX C: EMISSIONS COMPARISON 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 18 of 22 18 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 17 APPENDIX D: 2017 SUMMARY TABLE Physical Units CO2 Equivalent Percent of Total kWh, therms, gallons Metric tons CO2e Percent Buildings: Electricity Residential Energy 41,673,345 kWh 22,478 mtCO2e 21% Commerical Energy 42,694,923 kWh 23,029 mtCO2e 21% Total Electricity 84,368,268 kWh 45,507 mtCO2e 42% Buildings: Natural Gas Residential Energy 2,890,308 therms 15,373 mtCO2e 14% Commercial Energy 4,081,005 therms 21,705 mtCO2e 20% Total Natural Gas 6,971,313 therms 37,078 mtCO2e 34% Buildings: Propane Residential Energy 9,519 gallons 54 mtCO2e 0% Commercial Energy 5,657 gallons 32 mtCO2e 0% Total Propane 15,176 gallons 86 mtCO2e 0% Total Buildings various units 82,671 mtCO2e 76% Waste Mixed Solid Waste 3,563 tons 1,846 mtCO2e 2% Construction & Demolition Waste 4,924 tons 2,345 mtCO2e 2% Collection & Transportation n/a n/a 75 mtCO2e 0% Facility Operation n/a n/a 88 mtCO2e 0% Total Waste various units 4,354 mtCO2e 4% Transportation: Passenger Vehicles Gasoline 20,150,312 VMT 7,503 mtCO2e 7% Diesel 1,085,539 VMT 465 mtCO2e 0% Total Passenger Vehicles 21,235,850 VMT 7,967 mtCO2e 7% Transportation: Public Transit Roaring Fork Transit Authority 320,058 VMT 722 mtCO2e 1% Snowmass Village Shuttle 389,926 VMT 686 mtCO2e 1% Total Public Transit 709,984 VMT 1,409 mtCO2e 1% Total Transportation 21,945,834 VMT 9,376 mtCO2e 9% Aviation Aircraft Fuel n/a n/a 11,661 mtCO2e 11% Airport Equipment n/a n/a 732 mtCO2e 1% Total Aviation n/a n/a 12,393 mtCO2e 11% Wastewater Wastewater Treatment n/a n/a 46 mtCO2e 0% Total Wastewater n/a n/a 46 mtCO2e 0% Total 108,839 mtCO2e 100% 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 19 of 22 19 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 18 APPENDIX E: 2014 SUMMARY TABLE 3K\VLFDO8QLWV &2(TXLYDOHQW 3HUFHQWRI7RWDO N:KWKHUPVJDOORQV 0HWULFWRQV&2H 3HUFHQW %XLOGLQJ(QHUJ\(OHFWULFLW\ 5HVLGHQWLDO(QHUJ\N:K  PW&2H &RPPHULFDO(QHUJ\N:K  PW&2H 7RWDO(OHFWULFLW\N:K  PW&2H %XLOGLQJ(QHUJ\1DWXUDO*DV 5HVLGHQWLDO(QHUJ\ WKHUPV  PW&2H &RPPHUFLDO(QHUJ\ WKHUPV  PW&2H 7RWDO1DWXUDO*DV  WKHUPV  PW&2H %XLOGLQJ(QHUJ\3URSDQH 5HVLGHQWLDO(QHUJ\ JDOORQV  PW&2H &RPPHUFLDO(QHUJ\ JDOORQV  PW&2H 7RWDO3URSDQH  JDOORQV  PW&2H 7RWDO%XLOGLQJ(QHUJ\YDULRXV XQLWV  PW&2H 6ROLG:DVWH 0L[HG6ROLG:DVWH  WRQV  PW&2H &RQVWUXFWLRQ 'HPROLWLRQ:DVWH  WRQV  PW&2H &ROOHFWLRQ 7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ QD QD  PW&2H )DFLOLW\2SHUDWLRQ QD QD  PW&2H 7RWDO6ROLG:DVWH YDULRXV XQLWV  PW&2H 7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ3DVVHQJHU9HKLFOHV *DVROLQH 907  PW&2H 'LHVHO 907  PW&2H 7RWDO3DVVHQJHU9HKLFOHV 907  PW&2H 7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ3XEOLF7UDQVLW 5RDULQJ)RUN7UDQVLW$XWKRULW\907  PW&2H 6QRZPDVV9LOODJH6KXWWOH 907  PW&2H 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PW&2H 7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ3DVVHQJHU9HKLFOHV *DVROLQH 907  PW&2H 'LHVHO 907  PW&2H 7RWDO3DVVHQJHU9HKLFOHV 907  PW&2H 7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ3XEOLF7UDQVLW 5RDULQJ)RUN7UDQVLW$XWKRULW\907  PW&2H 6QRZPDVV9LOODJH6KXWWOH 907  PW&2H 7RWDO3XEOLF7UDQVLW 907  PW&2H 7RWDO7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ 907  PW&2H $YLDWLRQ $LUFUDIW)XHO QD QD  PW&2H $LUSRUW(TXLSPHQW QD QD  PW&2H 7RWDO$YLDWLRQ QD QD  PW&2H :DVWHZDWHU :DVWHZDWHU7UHDWPHQW QD QD  PW&2H 7RWDO:DVWHZDWHUQD QD  PW&2H 7RWDO PW&2H 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 21 of 22 21 SNOWMASS VILLAGE 2017 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY REPORT 3/2019 20 APPENDIX G: ASPEN PITKIN COUNTY AIRPORT INVENTORY Pitkin County sponsored the preparation of an update to Aspen Pitkin County Airport greenhouse gas inventory to aid with understanding airport-related emissions. The Airport inventory follows a standard airport greenhouse gas protocol. 2017 EMISSIONS INVENTORY SUMMARY In accord with ICLEI guidance, communities that capture an airport’s greenhouse gas inventory should only use the portion of passengers that begin or end their air travel in that community as the aviation emissions source for the community. For example, if 50 percent of passengers begin or end their travel in the community, then the community’s inventory should only capture 50 percent of the emissions associated with the airport. Conducted in this approach, it ensures that emissions of the airport are not double counted. It is important to note that the Snowmass inventory extracted emissions from airport-owned and controlled ground support vehicles (256 metric tons), tenant aircraft (72,879 metric tons), and tenant ground support equipment (4,319 metric tons) for a total of 77,454 metric tons. Emissions from building power use are captured in the Pitkin County inventory and travel to and from the airport is captured in the transportation section. Using the AirSage data, we estimate that about 20 percent of the passengers using ASE begin or end their trips in Snowmass Village. Therefore, 20 percent of the 77,545 metric tons were captured in Snowmass Village’s inventory (12,393 metric tons) for 2017. 05-13-19 TC Work Session Page 22 of 22 22