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03-29-01 Town Council Packet c � � 3 - a � aoo � SNOWMASS VILLAGE TOWN COUNCIL WORK SESSION MARCH 29-2001 3:00 P.M. TRANSPORTATION ISSUES DISCUSSION -- Mayor T. Michael Manchester NOTE: ALL ITEMS AND TIMES ARE TENTATIVE AND SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT FURTHER NOTICE. PLEASE CALL THE OFFICE OF THE TOWN CLERK AT 923-3777 ON THE DAY OF THE MEETING FOR ANY AGENDA CHANGES. I �i ee. r Resorts h'.•g1�T 'Yi2' 1 �, tip+ � �`` • 1999 ten Colorado r, .e mountain • to _ Mammoth • Summary Kati Report . J veer Resorts Tour 1999 In February 1999, twenty-seven civic and business leaders from Mani- moth Lakes visited ten mountain resorts in Colurado. The purpose of the Lf,7JIISTFS.'g trip was to learn how these communities were handling issues that we also face here in the Eastern Sierra Nevada. We were cordial) received our Rock Mountain counterparts. Wea Y Y Y P P- preciate their frank answers to our questions,and invite them to come to California to continue our conversations. This document summarizes volumes of reports and notes generated by the tour participants. I would like to thank all participants for their hard work, which shows commitment to our home community. I also thank the Town Council for its support,Town Manager Tracy Fuller for recog- nizing the importance of this effort, and Laurie Vance for organizing the tour. It was a worthwhile endeavor. The opinions and conclusions contained in this summary — and in the more detailed background reports also available to interested readers— are those of the participants,and should not be considered official policy of the Town of Mammoth Lakes. We publish this report to stimulate wide- spread discussion of the issues facing our resort community today. I urge anyone interested in the future of Mammoth Lakes to read on. Michael Vance Community Development Director Town of Mammoth Lakes August 1999 I Peer Resorts Tour 1999 Page I rn2°1 • I • Resort Statistics page 3 Table of statistics comparing Colorado resorts to Mammoth Lakes. Building Community 4 A resort should be a community,not a theme park that locks up at night. Housing G Mane workers in Colorado live miles from the resorts where they work. Transportation 8 Transporting visitors and residents around resorts and their communities. Resort Services I I Excellent customer service will keep our visitors coming back. Resort Design 13 How architecture,layout, and signage can help define a resort and give it identity. Arts, Culture, & Education is Using art,culture,and education to enhance residents'lives and attract visitors. Recreation 18 Investing in community health with rinks,recreation centers,and trails. Town Infrastructure 22 How resort towns deal with snowfall. Town budgets compared. Environment & Growth 24 Open space,growth management, and protecting the environment. Sustainability 26 What type of community do we want to bequeath to our grandchildren? Checklist for Mammoth Lakes 27 Our short list of recommended actions for Mammoth Lakes. Tour participants 28 Who went on the 1999 Peer Resorts Tour. Page 2 Town of Mammoth Lakes.Califomia I Resorts Permanent Resident Peak Visitor Snowsport Public Pillows Compared Population Population Visitors per year (lodging) Aspen 5,500 25,000 600,000 20,000 Snowmass 1,700 10,000 800,000 11,000 Crested Butte 2,000 10,000 520,000 7,000 Vail 4,500 50,000 1.600,000 40,000 Beaver Creek 150 14,000 550,000 13,000 Copper Mountain 200 3,600 920,000 4,400 Breckenridge 5.000 23,000 1,300,000 26,000 Keystone 2,800 40,000 1,150,000 26,000 Steamboat Springs 8.500 28,000 1,000,000 17,000. Winter Park 600 12,000 1,000,000 10,000 Mammoth Lakes S,300 35,000 925,000 8,000 Transit Riders Average per year Home Price Town Budget Aspen 800,000 $ 2,000,000 S 35,000,000 Snowmass 800,000 1,600,000 7,400,000 Mt. Crested Butte 880,000 468,000 3,400,000 Vail/ Eagle 4,300,000 1,400,000 30,000,000 Beaver Creek 900,000 1,200,000 13,000,000 Copper Mountain 1,000,000• 400,000 35,000,000• Breckenridge 355,000 600,000 29,000,000 Keystone 1,0001000• 280,000 35,000,000• Steamboat Springs 700,000 360,000 24,000,000 Winter Park 653,000 500,000 3,700,000 Mammoth Lakes 600,000 470,000 10,000,000 •Totl1 for Summit County Peer Resorts Tour 1999 Page 3 Building Community Mammoth Lakes is s resort town,yet also a hometown. Visiting a cam- pus-style resort like Copper Mountain or rubbing elbows with the ultra rich at Beaver Creek,we were reminded of just how important that home- town feeling was to us. We want Mammoth Lakes to prosper as a high quality resort and to re- main the home of choice for most people who work here. Two types of resorts We classify resorts into two general categories: Formula Resorts like Copper Mountain,River Run Village at Keystone,and Beaver Creek are the product of one developer or group. They tend to have that fresh off the rack feeling, squeaky clean — like Disneyland or a landed cruise ship. Built over Resorts like Steamboat Springs, Breckenridge, Aspen, and Mammoth Lakes,on the other hand,tend to have rougher edges and a lived-in,even messy vitality. Of the Colorado resort towns we visited, Steamboat Springs and Breckenridge gave us the strongest sense of community. Steamboat Springs reminded us most of Mammoth Lakes; however, the Colorado resort is larger and is about to celebrate its centennial. Breckenridge also has historic roots and a thriving business center. In contrast,about half the commercial space in River Run Village at Keystone looked empty. 'All the mom and pop stores from the years past Too rich for focal business have gone due to the Unless a town has a resident population,businesses there will be limited extremely high overhead to the direct tourist trade with its feast and famine seasonal cycles. A associated with doing town turned into a mountain theme park without permanent residents has less need for local.hardware stores, insurance agencies, dentists, or business in Aspen.' schools. Steve Boomer Financial pressure can also drive out business. For example, escalating overhead in the town of Aspen has forced many mom and pop businesses that provide local services to move down valley to Basalt, El Jebel, Carbondale,and Glenwood Springs. They have been replaced by upscale brand name merchants who don't provide the same merchandise or ser- vices. Can't afford to live here anymore The growing cost of resort living threatens the fabric of the community. When people can't afford to live in the resorts where they work,they move Page 4 Town of Mammoth Lakes,California ------ elsewhere. That often means living up to 6o miles down valley—several hours of commuting on good days and even more during winter storms. "The contradiction is that most resort employees Enrollment in Aspen's schools has declined, probably due to families moving down valley. Schools report having difficulty keeping teachers do not live at their resort due to the town's high cost of living. communities, so they Sixty-five percent of Aspen's employees; 5o% of Snowmass employees; don't feel a part of the 95-8o%of Vail's,and 30%of people working at Crested Butte live outside resort ... which can these towns. For Mammoth Lakes today,that figure is about zo%. contribute to a less than positive attitude." Demoralizing the workforce John Eastman Community leaders at the Colorado resorts were very concerned about thesenumbers. They recognize that many resort workers don't send their kids to town schools,must commute long distances in heavy traffic,don't shop in town, and don't pay town taxes. Such employees will feel alien- ated from the community and from their employers. They are less likely to give quality service to customers and are more likely to jump ship for other opportunities. Downtown Aspen services the ski Therefore,a top concern with community and business leaders in the Colo- hill. At some other resorts•the ski rado resorts— and our concern as well — is how to provide adequate in- area's base facilities and downtown town housing. commercial district are separate, competing centers. 1 t q �y, ; a N f, '' � fir, cc'• K4 , u { r' y.� 1 4 1 , e+! Peer Resorts Tour 1999 Page 5 Housing Real estate prices, reflecting the laws of supply and demand, have esca- lated in mountain resorts over the past decade. For example,the price of an average home in Breckenridge is now$600,000, up from $340,000 eighteen months ago. At Beaver Creek, residential units can cost over $t,000 per square foot. You can snap up a yo-year old 1,2oo-square foot house in Aspen for about$2 million. As real estate prices soar,so do rents. A one-bedroom apartment at Vail rents for$goo per month. A two-bedroom in Aspen can cost as much as "The message is clear, $2,000 per month. to remain a hometown, Colorado has plenty of private land, but zoning and market forces have we should recognize not provided adequate residential housing in the resort communities we basic community values visited. and why we moved to the mountains." Affordable and Residential To many people, the term'affordable housing" connotes rundown row Craig Tackabery housing, block apartments,or trailer parks. Clearly, it would not be in any resort town's best interest to have such neighborhoods. In this report,we will use the term resident housing to refer to in-town residences specifically designed for the resort's low to medium income workers. Most of such reasonably-priced resident housing that we saw on our trip to Colorado, although not fancy, was well-designed and main- tained. Different approaches to housing Towns like Vail,Breckenridge,and Aspen are addressing the housing short- age in general. Some of the ski companies,in particular, are working to provide resident housing for their employees. Aspen Funded by a 0.5% sales tax, real estate taxes, and cash in lieu fees(an $85,000 assessment for each new bedroom required), the Aspen-Pitkin County Housing Authoritybuilds housing which is then rented or sold to people who have had full-time jobs in the county for at least one year. Due to high demand,such housing is allocated by lottery. The authority spends $3 million per year and has constructed 500 units in the past threeyears. Their goal is to provide in-town housing for 6o% of the workforce by the year 2015. The current unmet need is 65o units. Aspen's Housing Authority has a dozen properties in town slated for resi- dent housing development,but 3 or 4 of them are under litigation by ad- jacent landowners who don't want to see them developed. Page 6 Town of Mammoth takes.California Vaif Vail Associates rents 28 one-bedroom units to seasonal employees for$550 per month. The ski area is currentlyproposing to construct 122 units for . its employees. At City Market, a shopping center in Vail,some employees live in apart- ments located above the retail stores. Mixed zoning such as this has prom- ise if careful thought is given to noise and security issues. Resident housing in Vail is controversial. The town owns one-third of the undeveloped land in the entire town,has millions of dollars invested in its housing authority,yet it has had a difficult time getting housing projects underway due to a Not-In-My-Back-Yard(NIMBY)attitude. Housing is zoned away from the town's core,which is perceived to have higher and better uses. The town has been sued for proposing a number of housing projects. Crested Butte Crested Butte requires that one quarter of all new lots be set aside for resident housing, while at Mt. Crested Butte, four percent of the gross floor area of new development must be for resident housing. Eighty per- "/affordable housing In cent of the area's workforce lives between Mt.Crested Butte and Crested g Butte south. Beaver Creek is the multi- Breckenridge million dollar maids Breckenridge recently recognized the housing problem,and is moving to quarters inside your solve it by land banking,offering incentives for deed restricted units,and billion dollar second, entering into partnership arrangements with the private sector. The ski area plans to build 172 units for its employees. A private developer is third or even fourth currently planning 122 units. vacation home.' Snowmass Paul Payne Snowmass Ski Area has built 200 townhouses and.apartments for its em- ployees. Although this resident housing project was the nicest we saw on our trip,it's all in one location rather than being dispersed throughout the community. Beaver Creek Beaver Creek solves its housing problem by constructing housing off-site and by letting the down valley market fill the need. Steamboat Springs At Steamboat, American Ski Company provides 122 apartments for its seasonal employees at$8 per pillow per day. They serve their employees first;after December 1,they rent to others if space is available. Steamboat An ice rink sits atop the War Center Springs requires that a percentage of each development be set aside-for for the Arts,a vvorW­class concert employee housing,and that such units are intermixed with market homes. hall that provides a stage for musicians and other amsts to Copper Mountain delight their audiences-and At Copper,Intrawest has constructed dorms at the base of the ski area. provides additional reasons for Five percent of the units in each development is set aside for housing. guests to visit Beaver Creek Peer Resorts tour 1999 Page 7 . 1 Transportation Getting to the resort along crowded highways is only half the battle if visi- tors cannot easily get around town during a peak skiing weekend or major summer event. A well-designed resort transportation system is multi-modal. It integrates free shuttle buses with private vehicles,public parking,pedestrian walk- ways, and bicycle paths. Gondolas and cabriolets (open top gondolas) can also be¢art of the mix. Visitors and residents should be able to get where they want to go conve- niently and efficiently. The least expensive,most environmentally sensi- tive,and healthiest modes of transportation for everyday resort living are Vail has the highest transit ridership walking and bicycling. Access for the handicapped is also mandatory. of any of the peer resorts. Resort shuttles Every resort we visited operates a year-round shuttle bus system. The main objective is to reduce traffic congestion and vehicle emissions caused vr' — by everyone driving private vehicles. A bonus to these communities is rs less pollution,since bus transport is considerably,more efficient when mea- sured on a passenger-mile basis. Shuttle service also reduces the amount of space required for parking. Aspen Aspen's Roaring Fork Transit Authority(RFTA)is the second largest trans- port system in Colorado. It carries 4 million riders each year in clean buses running on a convenient io-minute schedule. All in-town rides are free to the rider. Of course, someone has to pay for RFTA's $io million annual budget. Funding comes from local taxes, user fees, and the ski area contributes $1.5 million. Other Resorts Other towns are emulating or adapting the Aspen model. Crested Butte supports its free transit shuttle with a i%sales tax and a i% tax on lift tickets and ski school sales. Vail's $3.7 million transit system is funded through a 4%lift ticket tax and a 0.5%sales tax. Breckenridge operates its $i million transit system from the town's general fund,using a o.s% sales tax. Steamboat transit receives $i million from the town's general fund. Multi-modal approach Extracting Americans—especially Californians—out of their private ve- hicles is like prying turtles from their shells. That's why transit systems work best when a comprehensive,multi-modal approach is taken. When Aspen implemented its transportation strategy,use of their bus system increased 37%overnight. Page 6 Town of Mammoth Lakes,California Parking The Colorado resorts use various methods to manage parking. Vail and Aspen have built parking structures to encourage people to leave their cars away from downtown. Snowmass discourages vehicles by charging ' an$8 fee to enter town. In Vail,developers must provide off street park- ing spaces,or pay a$20,000 in lieu fee for each required space they don't provide. The in lieu fee is$13,000 in Breckenridge. a Pay & Display There is no ski area parking at Aspen, and the town's residents recently voted 73% in favor of eliminating free parking downtown. Parking on town streets is now on spay&display system.Merchants sell tokens that Many newer resorts are attempting are used in parking ticket machines. Locals can display countdown tim- to project an image of having been ers that must be turned on while parked;20 hours cost$20. Carpools can developed over time-as Was the obtain special passes at the entrance of the town. The town's parking de- case in Aspen. partment expends$800,00o and lakes in$1.4 million per year. Revenues go to an enterprise fund that maintains the parking system and pedes- trian facilities. Sidewalks and paths Once people are out of their cars,they need safe and convenient sidewalks and bicycle paths. Most of the resorts we visited kept their sidewalks and bicycle paths clear of snow during the winter. Aspen and Steamboat "Don't measure Springs require businesses to clear snow from adjacent sidewalks. None the success of of the resorts had cross-country ski or snowmobile trails that interfaced transportation only by with the town trails. the number of riders, Notably, Copper Mountain does not have sidewalks along its roads, so but also by the pedestrians have to walk in the street, which is neither a fun nor a safe thing to do with children during a snowstorm. The town of Vail owns the number of people rights-of-way necessary to complete bike and ski trails,but cannot do so walking on the streets." because some property owners have a NIMBY attitude. As resort towns David Dahl grow,such opposition will probably increase. Gondolas Ski resorts have a lot of experience moving skiers up mountains from their base facilities. The same technology could be used to move people around . town. Copper Mountain is considering a mile-long cabriolet connecting the parking lot to the ski area. They believe it will be less costly than a bus shuttle. At Breckenridge,Vail Associates plans a new gondola to take ski- ers from the middle of town to the ski area. Air transportation Air service insignificantly important for most of the Colorado resorts we . visited. It transports skiers from Denver as well as from targeted mar- kets, such as the southeastern United States,which are too far away for convenient ground travel. (continued) Peer Resorts Tour 1999 Page 9 I IColorado fly-ins About 75% of Steamboat Sphngs' skiers arrive by air. Not surprising, Steamboat's ski area subsidizes air service with si million each year. Due to its remote location,Crested Butte also relies heavily on air service. Con- sequently,they have about the same number of visitors during midweek as during weekends. "7546 of Steamboat s skiers come by air. We Mammoth Lakes,on the other hand, is packed on winter weekends and near-empty midweek. This is because we serve the drive-up skiers from can capture that market." Southern California and we have no significant air service. Rusty Gregory Reliable air service is key Visitors who fly-in tend to stay longer and spend more than their drive-in counterparts. In addition,compared to visitors who travel by land,those who fly have more resorts to choose from,since it's usually not much more ' expensive to fly r,000 miles rather than 500 miles. Competition for the fly-in skiers is keen. As ski resorts evolve into year- round destinations, they will also be courting fly-in hikers, anglers, art and music lovers, conventioneers, and other visitors from markets be- yond the local region. Successful resorts will need reliable airports nearby and resort-to-airport ground service that can handle this traffic with efficiency and style. "The thing that impressed me the most about Steamboat was the people: some of the nicest and willing to help people I've ever met. These people are first class." Douglas Baysore + — Downtown SteamboatTnngs portrays a sense or community and history. --- but it is physically removed from the mountain and ski facilities. page 10 Town of Mammoth Lakes.California Resort Services With manv mountain resorts available,why do people choose one in par- ticular? What keeps 'em coming back? Several factors enter the equa- tion,and we will discuss them in this report. The most important ingredient is the personal factor. How well are visi- tors treated as prospects,as travelers,and as guests? Do they have a thor- oughly enjoyable experience from the time they plan their trip until they depart for home? Quality customer service starts with advertising the resort and booking reservations. "We are at the threshold Central reservations of a once in a lifetime Reserving resort lodging and transportation services with one phone call opportunity to come has obvious customer appeal. In theory,central reservations should also benefit participating businesses if properties are offered and booked on together with the ski an equitable basis. In practice,some central reservations in Colorado were area, the lodging more successful than others. community and the Breckenridge Chamber, to form a new Breckenridge Central Reservations is a for-profit subsidiary of the non-profit organization to deliver a Chamber of Commerce. All but 1% of local lodging participate, paying a truly Unl Mammoth membership fee based on the number of pillows — one guest equals one y 4 Ue pillow,double occupancy is two,etc.—theyoffer. The system is governed by Experience' designed a board of directors representing the different types of lodging in town. around guest services, Aspen not politics." Aspen Central Reservations(ACR)was originally operated by the Cham- Marilyn Beaker ber of Commerce,but they were unsuccessful and needed financial sup- port. The Crown Family of Chicago,which owns the Aspen ski areas,loaned the funds and now controls the new ACR. The system represents qg%of the area's hotels. ACR plows profits into additional advertising for the resort... I . Crested Butte and Mt. Crested Butte Crested Butte has two central reservation systems. The one run by the Chamber of Commerce is well intentioned,but we considered it inadequate to the task;for example,they have no computers. The ski company oper- ates a central reservation system that fills its property first and others as overflow, Outside lodging must advertise in the-company's fulfillment piece to be included in the system. It is an example of a heavy-handed approach to a private central reservation system that does not appear to be interested in getting along with the community. Incentives Recognizing that good reservation agents are hard to find and keep,cen- tral reservation organizations offer incentives to their employees. For ex- ample,Aspen agents receive$to per hour,a season ski pass,and$2 per airline ticket booked. Breckenridge agents get$400 towards a ski or golf pass, and can work towards other incentives and bonuses. steamboat Peer Resorts Tour 1 999 Page I I Central Reservation agents get low-cost health benefits, a ski pass, and up to 5o% discount at local restaurants. Internet reservations & promotion The Internet is changing how resorts are marketed. All of the resorts we visited had websites to advertise themselves literally all over the world. Potential visitors can use the Internet to find out about weather, skiing conditions,and upcoming events at the resorts of interest to them. Online reservations Some resorts, like Steamboat and Aspen, also take online reservations. Steamboat Central Reservations noticed that while its voice volume was down to%,Internet inquiries were up 135%. Many resorts are using companies like Global Distribution Systems,World Res,Preview Travel,or others for direct online reservations. Less than l% of hotel reservations are currently made online; that figure is expected to increase to 3%by 2003. However, some hotels report that their online revenue will be six times greater than last year, and at least 8o% of that "Aspen's competitive will be direct. advantage flows from the Hyperlinked community. lt'S So An emerging challenge for businesses and organizations getting onto the ry Internet is to projects consistent quality image of their home resort across eclectic you Couldn't all websites. Hyperlinks should be made between various sites for the build it. People are benefit of the entire community. coming for the character of the town." Visitors for all seasons. Pat O'Donnell, At the time of our visit in late February 1999,skier visits in Colorado were down 15%due to poor snowfall and competition from other areas. Sea- CEO of Aspen Skiing Company sonal variations are to be expected in this business. There are also indica- tions that the "echo boom" generation is a smaller skier market than anticipated. In the face of such variables,ski resorts that wish to stabilize their econo- mies are diversifying into year-round destinations. That is what we're trying to do at Mammoth Lakes: Colorado year-round Aspen's peak visitor month is July. That mountain resort now has more visitors during the summer than winter,having become a world-class cen- ter for cultural and intellectual events. Steamboat Springs draws 30,000 visitors to its Triple-Crown-youth softball tournament each summer. Sum- mer attractions in Breckenridge include horseback riding,a film festival, and a classical music concert series. Use of Keystone's convention center drives 8o%of that resort's summer rental revenue. Crested Butte wants to capture more of the conference market by more than doubling its meeting space to accommodate 700 conventioneers. Page 12 Town of Mammoth takes.California --------------- --------------- I ' Quality customer service Visitors who are treated like valued guests are more likely to return and to. tell their friends about their positive experience. What are the Colorado resorts doing to lure visitors away from California? Ambassadors In Aspen, long-time residents sign a waiting list to become one of 200 greeters who receive season ski passes for their service. These volunteers act as ambassadors on the mountain, thanking visitors at the end of the day with cookies and hot cider. Aspen Skiing Company's employees are evaluated against the corporation's guiding principle:'to provide oppor- tunity for renewal of the human spirit." Steamboat 101 At Steamboat Springs, the Chamber of Commerce runs an orientation program for resort workers called"Steamboat tot". Skiers at Steamboat Springs are asked to fill out customer service surveys while riding the chair lift,and are rewarded for their feedbackwith a Steam- boat pin. "Walking needs to be Resort experience reintroduced into A few years ago,Aspen was planning a new chair lift. After consideration, Mammoth's commercial they decided to build a high speed double instead of a quad in order to preserve the character, intimacy, and experience of the resort valued by areas." ' both residents and visitors. Mike Vance Resort Design The layout,architecture, and mix of facilities at a resort can attract visi- tors and improve the daily quality of life of its residents. In this section, we note some of the physical elements that we think contribute to a qual- ity resort experience—or detract from it. Blending old and new Breckenridge,Steamboat Springs,and Aspen impressed us with their Old West boomtown character — achieved with brick buildings, landmarks, historical sites,and even place names. Breckenridge requires new down- d ..• town developments to follow the mining theme,but allows creative inter- pretation. History also plays a role at Aspen,a mature town with a stimulating blend ' of historical and modern architecture that gives it a style of its own. The center of the village is a pedestrian precinct,within walking distance or the ski area. Old Vail:a great example of comfortable pedestrian streets with Old Vail,with the exception of the Lionshead development,had an inter- great vWWs,scale,and solar access. Peer Resorts Totx 1999 Page 13 -------------- esting blend of old and new design that seemed to work well together. Resort layout We favored resorts that were compact,protected views of the surround- ing landscape,and were easy on pedestrians. Crested Butte has incredible vistas,yet most of Mt. Crested Butte's com- mercial structures are spread out, dated,and,appear as a collection of monoliths. Snowmass,which includes a themed outdoor mall,also seemed wk to sprawl,with no center. Street orientation Crested Buttes layout was east to west,making the north side of the street sunny and warm while the south was shaded and cold. in contrast,Vail's layout was north to south,allowing the mid-day sun to warm both sides of the street. In the Eastern Sierra,we have the opportunity to work with our abundant winter sunshine. Steamboat Springs Steamboat Springs is somewhat removed from the ski area village. The town reminded us of a combination of Mammoth Lakes and Bishop. Lionshead Lionshead Cevelopment at Vail: Vail is planning to redevelop Lionshead, an early development adjacent -oss of views.solar access. to Old Vail. This tightly-spaced cluster of condos suffers from a poorly c­2-non,and animation at the designed walkway system and ineffective retail spaces. Fixing this com- pedestrian level. plex will be difficult since it will require consensus among Lionshead's many owners. To be financially feasible,any redesign would also have to significantly increase Lionshead's density. Architecture makes a difference Architectural details are important,especially at the pedestrian level. It is -'oortant[o program public spaces for art and furniture at the At Keystone, wood batons improperly applied over Hardie board, ran- c^set. Placing public art after dom use of paint, and poor caulking left a negative impression with us. const':coon can appear awkward Wooden planters in the village square gave a feeling of"temporary adorn- and o-:of context,as is the case at ment",unfinished and out of character with the rest of the architecture. the plaza at Keystone. In our opinion, Keystone's themed architecture tries too hard to be dis- tinctive,with abrupt changes in color and texture that appear to be con- - trived. Some buildings do not have adequate detailing and modulation—' giving them a plain-front tenement look—while others are charming. Urban campus resort f+s°` The existing development at Copper Mountain reminded us of a college Ucampus with unfriendly,urban architecture. Page I- Town of Mammoth Lakes.California Lots of money --.� •,r .'• • � � • Beaver Creek's upscale and refined architecture is the stuff you see in the design magazines. These folks started with a blank slate and lots of money, and it shows in meticulous attention to architectural detail. This resort, ' however,has that unreal feeling of a master-planned,gated community- which indeed it is. It's not the atmosphere we want at Mammoth Lakes. Signage and circulation Most of the Colorado resorts have sign ordinances that attempt to limit visual clutter and contribute to a theme. Wood is the preferred sign mate- , rial. Storefronts at Beaver Creek indicate their presence discretely with- n out a hint of advertising. We liked the low key and pedestrian-oriented commercial signage in Aspen, Breckenridge,and Steamboat Springs. • I�t Thoughtful placement of street name and directional signs can help ori- ent the first-time visitor or delivery van. Inappropriate signage can be a source of confusion. At Keystone and Cop- per,for example,confusing directional signs and a complicated road sys- tem frustrated our visit to these resorts. At both Keystone and Lionshead, the route from village to lift was not obvious. Arts, Culture, & Educati®n Mention the words "arts" and"mountains" together, and many people Top.signage in downtown Aspen _ will immediately respond:"Aspen,Colorado". Although Aspen is the clear enhances the streetscape and standout,other resort towns we visited also promote the arts,reaping sub- contributes to the resort's village stantial social and economic benefits. atmosphere. In contrast.generic signage in the . Mountain high culture bottom photo could be from any Aspen as a resort was started fifty years ago by people who dreamed of a urban strip mall. modern Athens in which men and women could develop the whole body, mind,and spirit. Patrons involved with starting the Aspen Skiing Com- pany also helped establish the Aspen Institute,the Aspen Music Festival, and the international Design Conference at Aspen. These organizations have all matured and continue to sponsor world-class events and sympo- sia that draw thousands to the resort. Today,Aspen's Theater in the Park attracts 1o,000 patrons to its summer program under a big tent erected in the town's Art Park. The Aspen Film Festival is so popular that it uses four venues in town. The restored his- - -_- toric Wheeler Opera House presents both professional and community performances. A restored schoolhouse,the Red Brick Building,is home to Aspen Council for the Arts, Aspen Ballet Company, and many other non-profit organizations; they rent space for$12 per square foot per year. Peer Resorts Tour 1999 Page IS "Sierra Meadows could eventually become an Anderson Ranch for our h C community." Steve Boomer - �_ rSc�S•.l� k�1 - i.1 rig✓ , gr.C:Ct.`.O': PanG'.}l $flOwmaSS �t r.;�lnlrci?tty 05$e! rhi11 NLmC1S •.;Jrlfl •( +.VI1Crl 411151$ Anderson Ranch Anderson Ranch,at Snowmass,is an arts education center started by the resort's real estate developers in the r96os. The campus,which began as a turn-of-the-century cattle ranch,today includes studios and classrooms, an art gallery,lecture tent,ranch cafi,cabins, and dorms. People fortu- nate enough to attend receive instruction and are inspired by renowned artists-in-residence,in a beautiful setting. Beaver Creek The crown jewel of this resort is the Vilar Center, a$22 million perform- ing arts facility built beneath the resort's year-round outdoor ice rink. In its tasteful 530-seat theater, patrons can attend performances and con- certs rarely seen outside New York or Los Angeles. The center, like the resort,is very upscale. Steamboat Steamboat Springs Arts Council, a small but energetic and imaginative group of staff and volunteers,sponsors cultural events at this resort town. Their offices are located in an old train depot which citizens refurbished as an arts center and gallery. Steamboat Springs is also known for its Strings in the Mountains chamber music festival. Breckenridge Breckenridge has two orchestras and an arts-in-public-spaces program. Its Festival of Film draws international visitors. Page 16 Town of Mammoth taxes.California Public art Aspen,Vail,and Beaver Creek also have programs enablinglocal artists to display their work-usually sculptures-in public places. 'Phis beautifies the towns and also provides a venue for artists to display their works,which are often for sale. Funding Leadership for cultural development in the communities we visited came "IC was Che'paSSlOn Of primarily from the private sector. Successful projects were usually spear- exceptional people that headed by a handful of resourceful citizens who cared enough to simply turned artistic and go out and make it happen. cultural programs from a For financial backing,they sought out private patrons,secured corporate dream into a reality." sponsorships, and cultivated membership in local arts councils. In only Berenice de la Salle two instances - seed money for Steamboat's Arts Council and Aspen's and Helen Thompson. Wheeler Opera House-were government grants or funding used. Arts&Culture Committee members Many organizations help support themselves through ticket sales,art sales, or tuition fees. Partnerships While funding for the arts comes mostly from the private sector,we found that local citizens, businesses, and governments recognize the value of collaboration. They know the value of strong cultural programs to their families and to the town's economy. They form partnerships that make this happen. Whimsical artwork on display-ano for sale -at Beaver Creek. Non-profits ` •� Aspen alone has over 140 non-profit community organizations,the high- . est number per capita in the country. Some worry that there are too many groups,duplication of efforts,and that they compete for limited audiences and local funding. Cultural tourism Arta and cultural events not only help establish community identities and ° make them pleasant places to live;they also entice year-round visitors. Cultural tourists, who come for arts and festivals, bring money, some- times lots of it. They can help stabilize a ski resort's shoulder seasons. Arts-related business pumps over $6o million into the Aspen economy - every year. The Aspen Institute is open 210 days per year for community V,x events. At nearby Snowmass, Anderson Ranch is a year-round facility. Both serve as models that could be developed in Mammoth Lakes,per- haps at Sierra Meadows. Peer Resorts Tour 1999 Page 17 Higher education Culture and education are intimately related, as demonstrated by the Mammoth Lakes Foundation's successful ten-year effort to bring a col-. lege campus and the Arts to our own town. Similar foresight was evident in Colorado. Colorado Mountain College This institution has campuses near Breckenridge,Vail, Steamboat, and Aspen,serving 21,000 students. It offers programs of particular interest to residents of resort communities: hospitality, culinary arts, business/ computer science, paramedics, and fire science. The culinary program uses existing resort restaurant kitchens. Over l,000 students are enrolled in the college's English as a Second Lan- guage program,reflecting the area's growing immigrant workforce. Trickle down Schoolchildren have benefited from the region's emphasis on culture,too. Artists from Anderson Ranch, for example, also teach courses at local schools. Recreation Recreation—re-creation—is fundamentally why people visit resorts. It is the basis for Mammoth Lakes'existence,so it makes sense to see what our competitors in Colorado are doing to enhance recreation beyond skiing, snowboarding,fishing,and hiking. Ice rinks All of the resorts we visited offered ice skating-either on an outside lake "Kids" hockey or rink,in a covered facility,or both. is huge in Aspen. At Vail,demand for ice time at the large Dobson Arena(which is also used There is no controversy for conferences and trade shows)has grown so much that the town is con- y sidering building a second ice rink. about ice rinks. Noise has never Aspen and Breckenridge already have two rinks each. Aspen will be add- ing a third at their planned recreation complex. Breckenridge is consid- been a factor." ering a new$5.1 million indoor rink. John Eastman Steamboat's ice rink was originally outdoors. Tired of shoveling show - and fighting bad weather,citizens gathered$200,000 to'roof the rink'. The town's government was so impressed that it took on the task. As a result,the town now has a$2.7 million Olympic-sized rink that can seat one thousand spectators. Page 16 Town of Mammoth takes.California Recreation Centers,such as this one at Silverthorne, uenefit both era` residents and visitors. •:7 Recreation centers Lots of great recreation We were very inrpresscd by the new recreation centers insome afthe corn- We centers on our four; we munilies we visited. need that element In Mammoth." Breckenridge Rub Pcrlrn:+n Breckenridge Recreation Center,the newest attraction in this resort town, was built in 19go and enlarged in 1997. The$8.3 million,69,00o square foot facility has two pools,a gymnasium, racquetball courts, indoor ten- nis courts,climbing walls,exercise rooms,physical therapy area,meeting rooms,locker rooms,and a 1/13th mile indoor track. A park adjacent to the building has tennis courts,soccer/rugby fields,a skateboard park,pic- nic areas,'and open space. The center's annual budget is 51.5 million,supporting a permanent staff Of 17 and 25 part-time employees. Out-of-town visitors account for about 65% of the center's users. Fees pay for 75%of the cost of operating the facility. Sllverthorne Sih'erthorne Recreation Center in the valley is close to Keystone,Copper Mountain, and Breckenridge resorts. This 62,000 square foot complex, costing $5.9 million, includes four pools, a gymnasium, exercise room, cardiovascular room,spa,community rooms,tot room,and a 1/uth mile — indoor track The annual budget for this center is $1.3 million. Visitors account for approximately 35%of total attendance. Peer Resorts Tour 1999 Page 19 Avon Avon Recreation Center'is part of the community's civic complex, which includes a town hall, library, athletic fields, and lake. The focal point of the center is its 14,000 square foot aquatic area,which can be seen from the exercise rooms on the second floor. Avon is a valley town a short drive from Vail and Beaver Creek resorts. A park and sports field adjoin a nearby lake,which is cleared for ice skat- ing and hockey during the winter. This center employs 20 full-time and 4o part-time employees. Its budget is similar to those of the Breckenridge and Silverthorne facilities. Half of its users are visitors. Paths & trails Trails help define the outdoor character of mountain towns. They are useful for exercise and for getting around without the automobile. Steamboat Springs has built a four-mile trail system,which they plow for bicycle and pedestrian use during the winter. Also during winter,the town grooms separate cross-country ski trails on the ball fields. A bicycle path connects Keystone resort with nearby Lake Dillon,Frisco, and Silverthorne. Mammoth Lakes' 'summertime trail system is equal to or better than any we saw on this trip. However, some linkages are missing. We need to provide wintertime trail maintenance at comparable levels. Family recreation Steamboat Springs owns and operates a small ski area complete with a chairlift. Local kids can buy a season pass for$6o. We were impressed by Steamboat Springs'family recreation orientation and that community's 'Keystone built its history of producing Olympic athletes. recreation center for the Healthy investments community and operates Some of the Colorado towns we visited invested heavily in recreation fa- it at a loss for the cilities for the health and welfare of their residents. They have discovered community. It's that that these facilities are big-time attractions for visitors,too. When people vacation,they typically participate in five to eight activities each day. When important to them." recreation facilities such as the ones we saw in Colorado are available, Bin Sauser they become an integral part of vacationing. We'd like to see Mammoth Lakes make a similar commitment to public fitness and health. Page 20 Town of Mammoth Lakes.California Recreation. facilities compared The Colorado resorts offer a variety of recreation options beyond snowsports and fishing, for locals and for visitors,as shown in this table: N c � u .ID c 9 CO 2 c D 1Ng E E S O' it E outdoor Ice skating ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Indoor ice skating ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Cross-country ski trails ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Bike S pedestrian trails ■ ■ ■ is ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Public pool ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Indoor aquatic center ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Public exercise gym ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Climbing wall ■ ■ ■ ■ Softball, soccer, etc. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ - ■ Public tennis courts ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Covered tennis courts ■ ■ ■ Public golf course ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Skateboard park ■ ■ ■ ■ Equestrian center ■ ■ _ _ ■ - U ■ Town-owned ski hill ■ ■ Peer Resorts Tour 1999 Page 21 Town Infrastructure What to do with the snow The resorts we visited in Colorado receive less snow than the 220 inches we get most years in Mammoth Lakes. Since Sierra snow contains about twice as much water content,snowfall in Mammoth Lakes takes longer to melt and doesn't compact as well. Different snow means different ways to handle it. Here's how some of the peer resorts we visited deal with the white stuff: Silver- Brecken- Steamboat Mammoth Aspen thorne Vail ridge Springs Lakes Elevation (feetl 7900 8750 8150 9600 6700 7800 Snowfall (inches( 200 140 150 200 170 220 Lane miles to plow 85 17 60 60 143 1 S6 Lane miles per street 8.1 1.8 2.6 5.0 8.9 13 dept. winter employee Midnight 4:30 am - 3:30 am - 3:00 am - Snowplowing hours 2:30-4:00 pm 7:30 pm midnight 24 hrs midnight 24 hrs Leave driveway berms yes yes yes yes yes no Use snowpoles no no no no no yes On-street parking yes no no day only day only summer only Heated sidewalks no no no no no no Haul snow from yes yes yes yes yes no business district? - Page 22 Town of Mammoth lakes,California Comparing budgets Most municipal governments of the Colorado resort towns spend more per capita than we do in Mammoth Lakes. Some of that may be due to differences in the taxing and revenue sharing structures of Colorado and California. The table below summarizes municipal statistics from some of the peer resorts and compares them to Mammoth Lakes: Crested Butte and Brecken• Steamboat Mammoth Aspen Mt. CB Vail ridge Springs Lakes Population of town 5,500 2,200 4,500 5,000 8,500 5,300 Full-time equivalent 200 46 265 200 207 72 municipal employees Residents per FTE 28 48 17 25 41 74 municipal employee Town budget 35 3.4 30 29 24 10 IS million) Dollars per resident 6.4 1.5 6.7 5.8 2.8 1.9 IS thousand) 8.5% 7.2S% Local sales tax rate 8.2% 4.25% (4%returned 6.0% 8.S% 11%returned to town) to town) . . Local government report cards Every year,Aspen distributes a survey asking residents to comment on "Politics in the towns town government. Vail and Breckenridge survey residents ontheirtown's we visited have been civil performance every two years. and respectful." Mike Vance Aspen bonus If a municipal department in Aspen doesn't spend its entire budget,half of the surplus returns to the general fund. Then,if the department has performed well—based on statistical analysis of the annual resident sur- vey—the remainder is split between the department and—Its employees its- bonuses. Peer Resorts Tour 1999 Page 23 Environment & Growth Mountain resort residents expect a quality community surrounded by natural ecosystems and unspoiled vistas. This is also what attracts the visitors who sustain the local economy. Population growth is the biggest challenge facing resort communities,in Colorado as well as in California. Doubling the population means that twice as much water, sewage, power, housing, and other infrastructure must be constructed and maintained. Twice as many skiers on the moun- tain,two times the anglers on the stream. Here's what our counterparts in Colorado are doing regarding growth: Open space Visitors are not going to pay big bucks to vacation in a place that looks like a high altitude San Fernando Valley. Reduce open space,and locals would have lost much of what attracted them to the rural area in the first place. Breckenridge Like Mammoth Lakes,this resort is fortunate to be surrounded by public lands that will probably remain undeveloped. Eighty-five percent of Breckenridge Valley is under federal ownership. Breckenridge has adopted a policy of not upzoning. Density can be trans- ferred from the surrounding National Forest into town. Although the area -.;=k z • has a cap of to,5oo residential units, they have five subdivisions under construction and four more in the planning stages. Breckenridge and Summit County raise$2 million each year for an open space fund. Crested Butte x At Crested Butte,there is strong sentiment not to grow,causing property values to rise. Mt. Crested Butte, the ski area town, wants to grow by adding necessary facilities and amenities. The two towns have fees and mitigation measures for resident housing on new development,but the „ surrounding county does not. Steamboat Springs This resort town is annexing some adjacent lands,raising the prospect of M .,-rq',,;y:• w urban sprawl. At the same time,Yampa Valley Land Trust has purchased land in the area with the specific purpose of keeping it as undeveloped f s open space. Many of the great views of Breckenridge are lost when one is adjacent to massive developments such as this one. Page 24 Town of Mammoth Lakes,Cali ornia AMMIR �Ue7 tA®�157f a ti � z ��!:y��" � _ _ r gem -Y 1 4 • I s � Winter Park. a ,e rrstY•1 owned by'h(T 1 i I 1 Fl;i. Cny of benver. 1S c Unnected by rail Slow growth, Aspen style Aspen limits new development to between 2 and 3 percent per year. That means only7 to 12 building permits are issued annually,based on a points "In Asper), there are no competition. Factors weighed include architecture, size of the building, pe . and how ground disturbance is minimized. Developers can sidestep the more easy issues; all competition by building employee resident housing in conjunction with issues are controversial." market housing. Commercial development must provide employee hous- ing or pay an $85,000 in lieu of fee per bedroom for resident housing John Eastman elsewhere,or deed restrict other properties to such use. TDRs In Aspen, the maximum home size allowed is ts,000 square feet. If you want to build a house larger than that, you can purchase development rights from specified properties outside town and transfer them to your building site. The current market value of such transfer development rights is $qo per square foot. Needless to say,this makes building large homes quite expensive. Town & County coordination Pitkin County and Aspen have the same development standards. If that were not the case, intensive development would occur just outside the town limits. Peer Resorts.Tour 1999 Page 25 Protecting the environment People in the Colorado mountain resorts are taking day-to-day measures to protect the environment. "Creating the kind of Aspen's public works department has stopped using magnesium chloride town that destination to melt snow while the State completes a study of the chemical's environ- mental impacts. At Snowmass, the new cirque lift is powered by wind visitors Will want to Visit, energy. Steamboat Ski Area has an active recycling program. and stilt maintain Environmental leader the community we want Aspen Skiing Company is an environmental leader in its industry. It has and can afford to live in, established an environmental foundation — funded by goo of its 3,100 Will be OUf feaCes[ employees through paycheck deductions—which are matched by the ski g company and other groups. ThecompanyhasreceivedTimes Mirror Eagle ` challenge." Awards for environmental excellence,community outreach,and fish and Paul Payne -wildlife habitat protection three times. On the Internet, the company launched the industry's first environmental web site. f� J C,:ar;y, Mammoth Lakes is well zo%icncd with its Spectacular -.atura;<.etung and resources. Sustainability In a nutshell,sustainability means managing resources for our needs to- day without impairing future generations'ability to meet their needs. - - -- — We tan apply-what we have learned from the,Colorado resort communi- ties to the development of Mammoth Lakes. If we avoid irreversible ac- tions, anticipate future needs, and set a reasonable population size, Mammoth Lakes will remain a resort community worth visiting — and worth living in—well into the next century. Page 26 Town of Mammoth Lakes.California 4 Checklist for Mammoth Lakes We propose the following actions for our hometown Mammoth Lakes: ❑ Provide adequate resident housing for the community workforce so that no more than zo%live beyond Tom's Place or June Lake. ❑ Expand the existing bus shuttle service into a year-round transportation system for visitors and residents alike. • Improve air service to Mammoth Lakes by upgrading our airport and developing contingencies to transport visitors from lower- elevation airports during inclement weather,and from Reno-Tahoe Airport. • Develop a geothermal heating system for our public spaces, roads,homes,and businesses. • Support local businesses and non-profits to develop an Anderson Ranch style cultural conference facility. • Support Mammoth Lakes Foundation's efforts to build a performing arts center and college campus in town. • Build a community/resort recreation center with aquatic center and ice rink • Encourage pedestrians by building sidewalks in commercial areas and keeping all walkways free of snow. OWhat we'd like • Expand our summer trail system for pedestrian and bicyclists, Mammoth Lakes integrating it with destinations such as parks,housing areas, to be is a community commercial districts,and schools. that's also a resort, • Develop comprehensive winter trail systems for cross-country not is resort that also skiers and snowmobilers. happens to be a Cl Determine the most cost effective and environmentally sensitive community.' ways to deal with snowfall and winter parling. Tracy Fuller • Decide on an optimum sustainable population for Mammoth Lakes. • Maintain open space surrounding our community and protect view sheds. • Resist urges to expand the edges of town nibble by nibble. Peer Resorts Tour 1999 Page 27 Tour Participants These people represented Mammoth Lakes on thisyear s peer resorts tour: Douglas Baysore Jeff Mitchell Mountain Carpet TML Town Engineer Marilyn Bettker Paul Payne Mammoth Creek Condominiums Sierra Nevada Inn Steve Boomer Rob Perlman TML Parks&Recreation Director Mammoth Mountain Ski Area Ed Brisson Bill Sauser Intrawest Mammoth TML Parks&Recreation Commission `We can build a world- Kathy Cage class resort and still retain Town Council member Lanie Somers our communl ry. David Da TML Planning Commission lri The task is to get to work Sierra Nevada Inn Teri Stehlik and apply Berenice de]a Salle I what Seasons IV Condominiums we have learned." Town Council member CraigTackabery David Dufenhorst TML Public Facilities Director David Dufenhorst Intrawest Mammoth Bill Taylor TML Senior Planner Rhonda Duggan TM L Tourism Commission Mike Telliano, TML Planning Commission John Eastman Town Council member Helen Thompson TML Planning Commission Tracy Fuller TML Manager Laurie Vance TML Marketing Consultant Rusty Gregory Mammoth Mountain Ski Area Mike Vance CEO TML Community Development Director Dave Harvey TML Planning Commission Rick Wood Town Council member Gary Kirkwood Chamber of Commerce Pars&=W Page 28 Town of Mammoth takes.California Mammoth Lakes 2003 Mapping the Course for our future Workbook Town of Mammoth Lakes May 21, 1998 Mammoth Lakes 2003 Mapping the Course For Our Future 4 The Town of Mammoth Lakes has had a The Workbook general plan in place since 1987, and a Vision Statement for the community's This document discusses our values as a future since 1992. It is now time for resort community, and the Mammoth Lakes to plan for the interdependence of the community and implementation of its vision. the resort. The draft values have been gleaned from a number of current Town This draft document incorporates the documents. There are opportunities for previously identified community vision comments on these topics immediately as a guide to achieving the desired following each section. The workbook quality of life at build-out for Mammoth then provides an outline of the current Lakes. Although the content remains Mammoth Lakes' vision, and of a substantially the same, the Vision number of essential components of Statement has been reformatted with successful resort communities. minor changes into four goal areas. These four areas are: The key section of the workbook presents the proposed priorities and tasks 1. Maintaining a Strong Community; 2. Building a Successful, hat we must refine and commit to if we l High Quality are to achieve the vision. There are also Resort; opportunities in the document to 3. Maintaining a Sustainable comment on and rank the priorities, to Environment; rate the tasks, and to provide suggestions 4. Achieving Financial Sustainability. for improvement. The reformatted "Vision of Mammoth This workbook has been prepared for Lakes,"is attached as Appendix"A". your consideration and input. With your help we will establish a common As vision statements tend to be general understanding of how to achieve the in nature, an implementation strategy community and quality of life we desire, entitled"Priorities for the Next Five and make a commitment to the work Years"has been proposed. This strategy program that will take us there. This is a identifies for discussion, a range of working document, and will be reviewed specific priorities and tasks that must be on an annual basis as new information is undertaken by the Town and gathered, and as circumstances change. stakeholders to implement the first phase of an action plan to achieve the vision. If you want to havc more space to write Once the community reaches common than is provided in the workbook,please agreement on the priorities and tasks,the feel free to attach additional sheets. Town can commit to an annual series of action plans that will take us there. 1 Our Values The Interdependence of the Our values provide the foundation for Community and the Resort r our policies, which guide our actions. It is Mammoth Lakes' goal to be a resort = They represent what is important to us, community that is environmentally and will guide the decisions that will responsible and economically shape Mammoth Lakes' future. sustainable. The community has stated that Mammoth Lakes will be family The Town of Mammoth Lakes values: oriented, with a small town atmosphere. The community has also expressed the • A balanced community; a desirable desire to be a high quality destination place to live and visit,with housing, resort with an international clientele. employment, education, and cultural and public facilities for all segments While the resort cannot succeed without of the community a strong, flourishing community,the • Our natural environment health of our community is also largely • Our exceptional customer service dependent of the success of the resort. • Our sustainable financial management This captures what I understand to be The resort community values the relationship between the represent what I think is important to community and the resort. (Circle our community. (Circle one) one) Strongly agree Strongly agree Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Strongly disagree Strongly disagree Don't know Don't know To improve this section,I would add To improve this section, I would add the following: the following: 2 Components of a Successful • A municipal regulatory framework Resort Community designed around needs (not from the shelf). • An ongoing monitoring program to A successful resort community may track resort and community needs. attribute its prosperity to a combination • Established growth management of experiences, including the variety of strategies. recreational pursuits,the tremendous views, the architecture, the building To improve this section,I would add materials,the sun orientations, the the following: friendly service, the landscaping, and the opportunity for visitors to intermingle with the community. Most would agree that a number of the following components are common to a successful resort community. • A strong community with appropriate quality institutions. • A diversified year-round amenity/product mix addressing the changing needs of the clientele while enriching the community. • A trained, talented, local workforce committed to first class service. • Housing available to all residents. • A healthy local business community. • Reinvestment to maintain quality. • A shared vision. • Strong partnerships. • A quality product(s)supported by excellent service. • Ease of access to, from and within the community. • Value for money. • A well developed marketing strategy/program. • Community/resort policies in balance with regional policies. • A wide range of financial tools for local government. • High quality commercial centers. • An exceptional natural setting, and a sustainable environment. • State of the art resort facilities. 3 Elements of the Mammoth Lakes Vision Statement The following is a summary of the current Mammoth Lakes Vision Statement. Mammoth Lakes seeks to provide: • A high quality,destination resort • High quality commercial centers, community with year-round with an image and character recreational opportunities. reflecting the alpine and historic setting. • Environmentally and visually Recreation and visitor services as the sensitive areas have been protected. mainstay of the economy. • A strong sense of community. • A variety of available housing types, including adequate housing for the • A community that is clean, safe and local workforce. family oriented with a cohesive, small town atmosphere. • A wide range of facilities to support recreational and cultural pursuits. • A pedestrian and transit orientation that minimizes automobile usage. • Stable yearly resident and visitor populations. • Quality local educational and training opportunities. 4 Priorities for the Next are appropriate and sufficient for the type and amount of housing Five Years required; • Inventory sites and determine -+ whether land acquisition or rezoning. The current vision describes Mammoth is necessary to meet our demands; Lakes several years from now. The • Assess programs to enable community has identified in the vision retrofitting of existing commercial statement what is important to us as a and residential buildings to community and a resort. We must now encourage caretaker and rental identify the priorities and actions we suites; must implement to move towards • Investigate programs to encourage achieving the vision. Once refined,they conversion of older condominiums to will be prioritized and incorporated into resident housing; an annual work program, as a part of a • Establish a registry for rental five-year business plan. housing,both for seasonal and construction workers; • Explore ways to ensure continued Goal : Maintaining a Strong housing affordability. Community We envision Mammoth Lakes to be a Do you feel the tasks identified above community that is healthy, affordable, will enable us to achieve this priority? promotes lifelong learning,provides Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are diverse, affordable recreation sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. opportunities, supports the arts and do is don't know.(circle one) culture, and provides a range of family and youth programs. 1 2 3 4 5 do To improve this priority and these Prioriti tasks, I would add the following: 1. Provide a variety of housing types for all income levels throughout Town It is Mammoth Lakes' goal to provide sufficient housing to enable those who work here to also be able to live here, and to be part of the community. We will: • Identify amount and type of housing needed and when this need will occur. Identify who will be responsible for the various housing functions; • Evaluate whether the existing general plan and zoning designations 5 2. Diversify our economy 3. Expand leisure opportunities We want a diverse economy that The vision identifies a number of encourages businesses compatible with recreation facilities to be constructed. the resort activities such as education, These should be accessible to and meet private recreation, culture and the arts. the needs of both the community and These activities will both enrich the resort. We will: community and support the economy. We will: . Survey community and resort visitors to determine facility needs • Prepare and implement a year-round and market trends; economic diversification plan based . Identify alternate sites to on education, culture,the arts, and accommodate community and resort other businesses compatible with leisure needs; resort activities; . Review timing of construction of • Survey the existing mix of facilities against the long term businesses and activities and the financial plan; demand for complementary • Designate sites and prepare master businesses and activities; plans for leisure facilities; • Monitor other resorts with respect to . Integrate trail and neighborhood park trends in economic activity; plans with the resort corridor master • Where appropriate, enter into plan and the overall community private/public partnerships to master plan; implement our economic plan. . Coordinate and, where possible, partner with major stakeholders to Do you feel the tasks identified above add value to, and reduce cost of, will enable us to achieve this priority? facilities. Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. Do you feel the tasks identified above do is don't know.(circle one) will enable us to achieve this priority? Please rate 1-5,with 1:tasks are 1 2 3 4 5 do sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. do is don't know. (circle one) To improve this priority and these tasks,I would add the following: 1 2 3 4 5 do To improve this priority and these tasks,I would add the following: 6 4. Expand educational and training 5. Assist with preparation of regional opportunities growth strategies l As the community grows, it will be It is important to coordinate our efforts necessary to expand and enhance our with the County, State, and Federal a elementary, secondary and post- agencies on such matters as: secondary facilities. We also want to • Housing; provide opportunities for access to . Commercial/industrial activities; education and training in fields relevant • Transportation; to the community businesses. We will: . Recreation strategies; • Joint marketing; • Support the expansion and upgrading • Environmental strategies; of our existing schools, and the . Life safety services, including development of new facilities in a medical, fire and police. timely manner; • Support the expansion of the Do you feel the tasks identified above community college facilities and will enable us to achieve this priority? programs; Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are • Participate in hospitality sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient apprenticeship programs; do is don't know. (circle one) • Support a variety of educational programs based on the natural 1 2 3 4 5 do environment. Do you feel the tasks identified above To improve this priority and these will enable us to achieve this priority? tasks,I would add the following: Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. do is don't know. (circle one) 1 2 3 4 5 do To Improve this priority and these tasks,I would add the following: 7 6. Support arts and culture Arts and culture are playing an increasing role in community/resort sustainability. Mammoth Lakes desires �. a balance between recreation, education, culture, and the arts. We will: • Promote and support community events and festivals in commercial areas; 7. Improve institutions and programs • Prepare a public art policy and that support the community programs; A healthy community is essential for a • Identify and promote our historic, successful resort. We will: environmental and geologic heritage by developing educational programs • Facilitate expansion of community and activities; daycare operations; • Prepare a cultural facilities master • Assess needs for youth (e.g., plan; opportunities for youth center); • Prepare an event and festival master • Improve recreation/leisure/ plan; educational opportunities for all • Promote and support community residents; events and festivals in high profile • Increase range of affordable family areas; recreation programs; • Secure necessary land for facilities; • Explore other means to ensure • Review the possibility or Mammoth Lakes remains affordable appropriateness of constructing for residents. interim facilities to support the arts; • Undertake inventory of existing Do you feel the tasks identified above community space to support the arts; will enable us to achieve this priority? • Promote joint use of facilities with Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are other agencies. sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. do is don't know. (circle one) Do you feel the tasks identified above will enable us to achieve this priority? 1 2 3 4 5 do Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. To improve this priority and these do is don't know. (circle one) tasks,I would add the following: 1 2 3 4 5 do To Improve this priority and these tasks,I would add the following: 8 8. Improve the character and quality 9. Improve our community services of existing and future residential High quality community services are . 7 neighborhoods important for community stability and The quality and appearance of our pride. We will: -3 residential neighborhoods contributes to neighborhood pride in Mammoth Lakes. • Pursue the construction of a We will: recycling center in a convenient location; • Survey residents to determine • Prepare comprehensive water, desired levels of quality and energy and environmental guidelines character; to guide our actions; • Prepare design standards and • Monitor levels of service for fire, guidelines for residential police and health care to ensure they neighborhoods as appropriate; remain high with continued growth; • Explore incentive programs such as • Prepare and maintain strategy for Communities in Bloom and Arbor public communication; Day to encourage landscaping and • Regularly schedule opportunities for other outside improvements; community consultation; • Explore an infrastructure-upgrading • Complete the revision of the general program; plan to address current issues related • Improve pedestrian and alternate to growth in the community. modes of circulation; • Review zoning requirements; Do you feel the tasks identified above • Provide measures to assure adequate will enable us to achieve this priority? code compliance. Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. Do you feel the tasks identified above do is don't know. (circle one) will enable us to achieve this priority? Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are 1 2 3 4 5 do sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. do is don't know. (circle one) To improve this priority and these tasks, I would add the following: 1 2 3 4 5 do To improve this priority and these tasks, I would add the following: 9 10. Enhance and revitalize 11. Support ethnic diversity community commercial service Ethnic and cultural diversity enriches ' district community life. We will: Provide a high quality commercial :- district that will be a focus for • Facilitate communication between community services and events for both all groups in the community; residents and visitors to enjoy. We will: • Organize cultural exchanges; • Explore"sister city"initiatives; • Identify the type and intensity of • Implement programs that address the land uses to serve the community; needs of ethnic groups; • Prepare guidelines for enhancement • Encourage integration of cultural and and revitalization of commercial ethnic programs and events into district; community. • Prepare and implement pedestrian/transit circulation plan Do you feel the tasks identified above and parking plan; will enable us to achieve this priority? • Explore opportunities for housing in Please rate 1-5, with 1: tasks are and around commercial district; sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. • Explore opportunities for cottage do is don't know. (circle one) industries in support of resort businesses; 1 2 3 4 5 do • Encourage industrial uses to relocate from the commercial districts to the To improve this priority and these Industrial Park; tasks, 1 would add the following: • Bring all signage into conformance with zoning code; • Implement redevelopment programs to encourage business enhancement. Do you feel the tasks identified above will enable us to achieve this priority? Please rate 1-5,with f: tasks are sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. do is don't know. (circle one) 1 2 3 4 5 do To improve this priority and these tasks, I would add the following: 10 12. Foster a Healthy City The Priorities under Maintaining a "7 Healthy Cities promotes exchanges, idea Strong Community are a good way to sharing, support and cooperation achieve the vision. (circle one) -a between community groups. We will: Strongly agree • Support a Healthy City program in Agree Mammoth Lakes; Disagree • Assist in developing a one-stop Strongly disagree network for social, health, recreation, Don't know and education services; • Assist with communication and networking needs in support of program. Please rank the priorities 1 through Do you feel the tasks identified above 12, 1 being the most important/urgent will enable us to achieve this priority? and 12 being the least: Please rate 1-5, with l: tasks are sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. Provide a variety of housing do is don't know. (circle one) types for all income levels throughout the Town 1 2 3 4 5 do Diversify our economy Expand leisure opportunities To improve this priority and these Expand educational and tasks, I would add the following: training opportunities Assist with preparation of regional growth strategies Support arts and culture Improve institutions and programs that support the community Improve the character and quality of existing and future residential neighborhoods Improve our community services Enhance and revitalize community commercial service district Support ethnic diversity Foster a Healthy City tt Goal 2: Building a Successful, Do you feel the tasks identified above High Quality Resort will enable us to achieve this priority? Mammoth Lakes will be the hub of Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are recreation activities in the Eastern Sierra, sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. a four-season destination resort du is don't know. (circle one) community catering to national and international visitors. 1 2 3 4 5 do Priorities To improve this priority and these tasks,I would add the following: 1. Complete High Quality Resort Plans Develop the resort accommodation and amenities necessary for Mammoth Lakes to penetrate targeted destination resort markets. We will: • Determine visitor needs and market trends by surveying visitors and other competitive resorts; • Integrate community and visitor needs in resort development plan; • Prepare master plan and separate design guidelines and standards for each resort area in the development proposal; • Develop appropriate private/public 2. Enhance and revitalize the Main partnerships to add value/reduce Street commercial area at the costs of facilities/infrastructure. entrance to town • Enter into partnership agreements to The Main Street area is an extremely identify responsibilities for facilities, important,highly visible commercial operations,and mafritenance; district at the entry to town. We will: • Develop pedestrian and fransit . Survey stakeholders and landowners circulation plans to provide easy to identify goals for the Main Street pedestrian access and transit use area; between resorts,recreation activities, . Prepare revitalization and and the downtown commercial areas. enhancement guidelines; • Evaluate commercial land uses and the desired mix of uses and implement any changes required, including zoning amendments; • Construct pedestrian, landscaping and circulation improvements; • Undertake public art competitions at commercial and public sites; 12 • Implement a snow removal plan that -T enhances business visibility and pedestrian access; _j • Prepare a banner and seasonal decoration program; • Improve pedestrian and disabled access; • Initiate storefront improvement programs; • Introduce opportunities for resident housing; • Construct a pedestrian link between 3. Provide exceptional customer visitor center and commercial area; service • Construct a new,or improve the We must recognize that from the existing visitor center with customer's perspective the"Mammoth interactive displays; Experience" should be seamless, and • Implement redevelopment programs that every service provider is equally to encourage business enhancement; responsible for delivering a quality • Prepare a parking strategy that product. We will: provides adequate parking alternatives for Main Street . Introduce and maintain an employee businesses. customer service training program; • Integrate community activities with Do you feel the tasks identified above resort activities to raise awareness. will enable us to achieve this priority? Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are Do you feel the tasks Identified above sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient will enable us to achieve this priority?' do is don't know. (circle one) Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. 1 2 3 4 5 do do is don't know. (circle one) 1 2 3 4 5 do To improve this priority and these tasks,I would add the following: To improve this priority and these tasks,I would add the following: 13 4. Maintain high quality of experience 5. Improve and expand the trail and in recreation areas parks system A large part of Mammoth Lakes' future Our trail and parks system is not only a success will depend on maintaining high community amenity,but also helps to , quality recreation experiences during all diversify our visitor's experience. We seasons. We will: will: • Maintain fishing enhancement and • Update Parks and Recreation special events programs; Element of the general plan; • Expand recreation and nature trails; • Construct trail segments 1 and 2 • Promote environmental education along Highway 203, and segment 4 through interpretive centers and through Old Mammoth to complete other public education facilities; main path system; • Provide adequate parking and/or • Construct under-crossings at public transportation and public Highway 203 and Meridian; facilities for recreation areas; • Review cross-country ski trail • Integrate.cultural/heritage displays system and incorporate into the trail with recreation areas; master plan; • Protect significant environmental • Review snowmobile trail system and features from overuse by identifying incorporate into the trail master plan; maximum levels of visitation and • Construct trail connector from introducing management measures. Meridian to Mammoth Creek Park; • Construct bike lanes on Lake Mary Do you feel the tasks identified above Road from Minaret and Main to will enable us to achieve this priority? Horseshoe Lake; Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are • Preserve and maintain adequate open sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. space within Town boundaries. dn Is don't know. (circle one) Do you feel the tasks Identified above 1 2 3 4 5 do will enable us to achieve this priority? Please late 1-5,with l: tasks are To improve this priority and these sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. tasks,I would add the following: do Is don't know. (circle one) 1 2 3 4 5 do To improve this priority and these tasks,I would add the following: 14 6. Improve transportation system 7. Support private sector investments Our transportation system should move in winter and summer recreation our residents and visitors throughout our Additional investments in winter and 4 community efficiently and affordably. summer recreation facilities and We will: programs will add to the quality of experience and to the resort's success. • Update and complete comprehensive We will: transportation and transit strategy and implement recommended • Encourage on-mountain actions; improvements by Mammoth • Facilitate the use of alternate modes Mountain Ski Area and Snowcreek; of transportation such as bicycles • Participate with and support local and other conveyances; and regional recreation operators to • Construct sidewalks as shown on the create complimentary activities Sidewalk Plan; throughout the area; • Construct airport improvement and • Participate in securing easements at expansion initiatives. North Village; • Support completion of Snowcreek Do you feel the tasks identified above Golf Course; will enable us to achieve this priority? • Encourage use of golf courses for Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are cross-country skiing and other winter sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. recreation activities. do is don't know. (circle one) Do you feel the tasks identified above 1 2 3 4 5 do will enable us to achieve this priority? Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are To improve this priority and these sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. tasks, I would add the following: do is don't know. (circle one) 1 2 3 4 5 do To improve this priority and these tasks, I would add the following: 15 S. Improve information systems and 9. Expand resort-marketing database initiatives Having an accurate database and Marketing is a key component to ` information system will enable us to Mammoth Lakes' success as a resort. monitor and respond proactively to We will: resort and community trends. We will: • Establish target markets; • Prepare and implement a community • Evaluate alternate successful and resort monitoring program; marketing strategies and implement • Initiate information-sharing recommendations; programs with other resorts. • Enter into marketing partnership arrangements with key local and Do you feel the tasks identified above regional stakeholders; will enable us to achieve this priority? • Review role of community gateways; Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are • Promote packaging of transportation, sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. recreation, lodging and activities. do is don't know. (circle one) Do you feel the tasks identified above 1 2 3 4 5 do will enable us to achieve this priority? Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are To improve this priority and these sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. tasks,I would add the following: du Is don't know. (circle one) 1 2 3 4 5 do To improve this priority and these tasks, I would add the following: 16 The priorities under Building a Comments: r Successful,High Quality Resort are a good way to achieve the vision. (circle -! one) Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Don't know Please rank the priorities 1 through 9, 1 being the most important/urgent and 9 being the least: Complete Resort Plans Enhance and revitalize the Main Street commercial area at the entrance to Town Provide exceptional customer service Maintain high quality of experience in recreation areas Improve and expand the trail and parks system Improve transportation system Support private sector investments in winter and summer recreation Improve information systems and database Expand resort-marketing initiatives 17 Goal : Maintaining 2. Implement Source Reduction and Sustainable Environment Recycling Element Residents and visitors value the natural Our Source Reduction and Recycling environment in and around Mammoth Element of the general plan will help to Lakes. We must protect and where reduce waste in a cost-effective manner. possible, enhance our environmental We Will: values. • Update Source Reduction and Priorities Recycling Element; • Enforce regulations on litter and 1. Support environmental education dumpster placement; Educating our community on best • Construct transfer station; environmental practices is an important • Improve recycling collection step towards our minimizing throughout the community. environmental impacts. We will: Do you feel the tasks identified above • Develop interpretive centers in areas will enable us to achieve this priority? with sensitive or unique local Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are habitats; sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. • Support school and college do is don't know. (circle one) curriculum and seminars on the environment; 1 2 3 4 5 do • Educate businesses on energy use reduction and recycling; To improve this priority and these • Prepare environmental monitoring tasks,I would add the following: guidelines for construction activity. Do you feel the tasks identified above will enable us to achieve this priority? Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. do Is don't know. (circle one) 1 2 3 4 5 do To improve this priority and these tasks,I would add the following: 18 3. Protect environmentally sensitive 4. Improve wastewater collection and y areas Treatment y It is important to protect our We wish to minimize our impact to the _J environmentally unique and sensitive rivers and streams. We will: areas from disturbance. We will: • Support initiatives by our Water • Undertake an inventory of District to improve wastewater environmentally sensitive and unique treatment; lands; • Implement measures to reduce water • Secure sensitive areas in order of consumption; priority; • Promote reclaimed wastewater use. • Improve areas experiencing environmental degradation; Do you feel the tasks identified above • Control access to sensitive and will enable us to achieve this priority? unique land; Please rate 1-5,with 1: tasks are • Strongly object to initiatives which sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. would create significant negative do is don't know. (circle one) environmental impacts; • Construct storm drainage systems; 1 2 3 4 5 do • Monitor air quality and implement measures to retain high quality if To improve this priority and these necessary. tasks,I would add the following: Do you feel the tasks Identified above will enable us to achieve this priority? Please rate 1-5,with l: tasks are sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. do is don't know. (circle one) 1 2 3 4 5 do To improve this priority and these tasks,I would add the following: 19 5. Improve domestic water supply To improve this priority and these treatment tasks, I would add the following: The quality of our water should reflect the image of Mammoth Lakes as a pristine, environmentally responsible ` resort community. We will: • Support initiates by our Water District to improve domestic water treatment, and to move towards groundwater as the primary source. Do you feel the task Identified above will enable us to achieve this priority? Please rate 1-5,with 1: task is sufficient and 5: task not sufficient do is don't know. (circle one) 1 2 3 4 5 do The priorities under Maintaining Sustainable Environment are good To improve this priority and these way to achieve the vision. (circle one) tasks,I would add the following: Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Don't know Please rank the priorities 1 through 6, 1 being the most important/urgent 6. Preserve cultural resources and 6 being the least: Preserving our cultural heritage enriches our community and provides an Support environmental educational link to our past. We will: education Prepare and Implement solid • Prepare and implement a Cultural waste management plan Resource Strategy. Protect environmentally sensitive areas Do you feel the task identified above Improve wastewater collection will enable us to achieve this priority? and treatment Please rate 1-5,with l: task is Improve domestic water supply sufficient and 5: tasks not sufficient. treatment do is don't know. (circle one) Preserve cultural resources 1 2 3 4 5 do 20 Goal #4: Achieving Financial 1 2 3 4 5 do �. SustainabiHty Implement redevelopment initiatives It is our objective to balance community 1 2 3 4 5 do 3 and resort needs within our financial Investigate sponsorship opportunities capabilities. Mammoth Lakes must also 1 2 3 4 5 do be affordable for our residents and The priorities under Achieving visitors. Financial Sustainability are a good way to achieve the vision. (circle one) Priorities Strongly agree Agree We will develop a wide range of Disagree financial tools that will include: Strongly disagree Don't know 1. Adopt a long-term municipal financial strategy; 2. Commission a maintenance and To improve these priorities,I would operations study in support of add the following: Master Facilities Plan 3. Commission a facilities capitalization plan 4. Review and develop financial tools used in other resort communities; 5. Review opportunities for public/private partnerships; 6. Commence redevelopment implementation plan programs; 7. Investigate sponsorship initiatives from major corporations. Do you feel the financial tools identified above will enable us to achieve this goal? Please rate 1-5, with 1 is tasks are sufficient and 5 is tasks are not sufficient do is don't know. (circle one) Long terra financial strategy 1 2 3 4 5 do Prioritized facility plan 1 2 3 4 5 do Review tools used in other resorts 1 2 3 4 5 do Review opportunities for privatetpublic partnerships Please see back page. 21 Other Comments: Providing your name, address and phone number is options]. This Information will increase the value of the workbook results,and will allow us to provide you with follow-up Information,if appropriate. Name Address Phone number I am a: _Resident _2"d Homeowner Visitor My age is: _Under 21 21 -35 36—55 55+ For any inquiries, or for additional workbooks, please contact: The Town of Mammoth Lakes Community Development Department Minaret Village Shopping Center, Suite R P. O. Box 1609 Mammoth Lakes,CA 93546 (760)934-8989 extension 224 It is important that the Town receive your comments as quickly as possible. We would appreciate your returning the workbook to the Town within 7 days of receipt. Thank you for your participation. 22 D F CityGreen A Guide to Green Infrastructure for Canadian Municipalities Prepared for Federation of Canadian Municipalities Sustainable Communities Conference and Trade Show Ottawa, February 8-10, 2001 Prepared by: Sebastian Moffatt The Sheltair Group Resource Consultants Inc. Contents ................................................................................................................................ 1. Transforming the City........................................................................................3 Historical Perspectives and Important Trends....................................................3 A Vision for What Lies Ahead............................................................................5 2. Features that Define "Green" Infrastructure.......................................................7 3. The Full Benefits of Green Infrastructure.........................................................10 SocialBenef its.................................................................................................10 EconomicBenefits...........................................................................................11 Environmental Benefits....................................................................................12 4. Best Practices for Green Infrastructure............................................................13 StormWater Systems......................................................................................13 LiquidWaste....................................................................................................15 Potable Water Systems...................................................................................17 EnergySystems ..............................................................................................18 SolidWaste Systems.......................................................................................19 Transportation Systems...................................................................................20 5. Making It Happen............................................................................................21 DRAFT A Guide to Green inlrasnucfure for cenadan MunioipeiNes The eIWUUOmup PM CaruJws bw . i 1 . Transforming the City A world-wide effort to improve urban sustalnability over the past decade has produced systems and buildings that are increasingly diverse and complex, with greater functional integration at all scales, from the building and site, to the neighbourhood and city. The pattern Is becoming clear. Infrastructure systems are evolving Into 'ecological'forms that are more effective at looping scarce resources, and at cascading energy flows through multiple end uses. Greater emphasis is being placed upon achieving thermodynamic efficiency for the systems as a whole, and upon creating systems that are Inherently more adaptable and resilient. The net result Is an Integrated Infrastructure system with a reduced ecological footprint over Its life cycle, and with significant benefits for the community economy and quality of life. This Is referred to as Green Infrastructure Like the term 'green building', the concept of'green infrastructure' has evolved over time. Initially the focus was on using elements of the natural environment to replace or supplement the 'built'forms with which we are more familiar. Moderating the scale of the infrastructure was seen to be equally Important. More recently we are looking to incorporate appropriate technologies and green materials that match the quality of the resource and system design to the user needs. Natural and low-tech products and systems are applied before complex or resource-Intensive solutions. On-site and renewable resources are used wherever possible, and then supplemented by larger scale Infrastructure as necessary. Green infrastructure is actually hybrid Infrastructure that is more resource efficient, adaptable and sustainable. As a consequence of Green infrastructure, the process of system design and assessment Is becoming more challenging and Interdisciplinary. This Guide Is one attempt to meet this challenge. It is Intended to help each of us better understand and apply the concepts underlying the new Green Infrastructure, and develop a new mental model for what our cities will look like in years to come. Historical Perspectives and Important Trends Infrastructure is a term for describing mechanisms that transform raw resources Into the essential services required for our homes and businesses. No city can operate without Infrastructure, and thus system designs date back to the cities of antiquity. In some cases,the systems haven't seen much change since that time. In fact, cities In Europe are still using elements of water supply systems that are over 2000 years old. Many ancient systems were well-designed, providing beautiful civic structures and clever integration of resource flows. The pools of the Siloam, described in the Bible, were actually Jerusalem's cesspools,where farmers would gather to collect the highly valued sludge for use on their market gardens. Many Roman settlements in northern Europe were piped with district heating systems that used warm gases from the large kitchens to heat floors throughout clusters of buildings. The large, centralised water, waste, sewage and energy grids that are so similar In cities today were first engineered In the 1 e century, with water and sewer DRAFT A Guide to Green Infrestnrcture for Canedlan MunkipaWeW 7M srohdromw R.sauip Cmrunvtl K Infrastructure beginning in the 1840s, and electricity grids in the 1870s. At that time, water and sewer systems, along with electricity, were massive and noble undertakings. Most social activists and humanitarians focused on these type of housing improvements as the best way to Improve family health comfort and standards of living. In fact the social movements of the early 20th century - Including women's liberation -were focused on transforming the built environment, Indoors and outdoors. (A similar process is now underway in many developing countries.) Little thought was given to environmental limits, or to possibilities for Integrating systems. Instead, single purpose agencies and businesses were created, often with monopoly status, and with a mandate to increase supply. These traditional infrastructure systems are becoming increasingly costly to operate on a per person basis. On-site demand for operating resources per dwelling is declining. Average occupancy per dwelling in decreasing. The cost of delivering resources to site is increasing. The cost of securing resources is increasing. For all these reasons a growing proportion of resources is used In unproductive generation and distribution operations. At the same time, we are witnessing changes to technology and the economy that are creating radically new opportunities. For example: • Urban density is increasing (or is planned to Increase); • Land availability Is decreasing; • Many new small and micro utility servicing equipment are now on the market, Including water treatment, water recycling, cogeneration and heat pumps; • Energy storage systems, which Improve renewable energy potential, and flatten the grid connected demand, are increasing. In some cases the grid can be seen as a storage substitute with energy flowing both directions; • Artificial intelligence can now be used to optimise hybrid systems that use on- site, renewable resources firstly, and even out the flows by sharing with the grids; • Utilities are being transformed Into flexible and market driven businesses focused on a broad range of customer needs- in some cases offering gas, electricity, water, cable, Insurance, telephone, appliances and sewage from a single supplier. It is Important not to underestimate the extent of change now underway. Green infrastructure Is likely to change the city more than automobiles or electricity or concrete. In fact we are really talking about the first major change in urban form and function since cities were Invented. Long time constants will serve to soften the impacts of such change—for example, existing buildings may last 40 or 60 years, and highways and pipes can last even longer. However the scale of change In our cities is analogous to what has already occurred with computers,where a large, centralised, expensive and single purpose'main frame' Infrastructure has been almost completely replaced by a network of on-site systems. In the emerging green communities, elements of urban Infrastructure systems are already moving move much closer to—or Inside—the buildings themselves, even In large urban centres. Increasingly we see a blurring of the traditional boundaries that separate one type of 'building'from another, and buildings from their civil DRAFT A Gulde to Green intraatructure for Canadian Munlcipalldaa The Stm&QmV R• Carulun•No infrastructure. Large distribution grids and remote treatment and generation facilities are giving way to a network of distributed or'on-site' Infrastructure systems, with shared elements,finely integrated into the fabric of the built environment. More diverse land use and building types complement the on-site Infrastructure systems, by evening out the demand for services, and creating opportunities for re-use and synergy. The end result will be urban clusters that are more diverse and self-reliant, with mixtures of housing, commercial space and Industry. In the process,the traditional parcelling of land uses will give way to a multi-layered approach. In the existing older communities, such sustainable Integration is more challenging. The pace of technological change will need to be matched to natural turnover rates for the stocks. Functional integration of systems must evolve incrementally. The performance of the existing systems must be carefully evaluated and forecasted in order to allocate resources between maintenance and refurbishment, on the one hand, and whole scale replacement with alternative systems on the other. Either way, the system design and engineering Industry will have to consider an increasingly wide range of options. The life cycle Impacts from energy and material flows will need to be assessed for diverse technologies, and for a much greater variety of scales and locations. We will need comprehensive models in order to combine the flows from different stocks (buildings, roads, plants, pipes and wires) and to allow fair comparisons between Integrated and less Integrated systems. The first step In meeting such challenges is to transform the models we carry around in our heads, and redefine just how cities are Intended to function. A Vision for What Lies Ahead The basic premise for green infrastructure assumes that we must learn to adopt smaller scale urban systems, distributed more widely, located closer to and within buildings, Integrated with elements of buildings, and integrated with other Infrastructure systems. This type of transformation Is the logical result of applying principles of sustainable urban planning. Increasingly we will see a blurring of the traditional boundaries that separate one type of'building'from another, and buildings from their civil Infrastructure. Large grids and remote treatment and generation facilities will give way to distributed systems, organised Into a nodal in a hierarchy. At the neighbourhood scale, the nodes of a distributed Infrastructure will Include clustered, self-reliant, mixed developments of housing, commercial space and Industry. In fact every housing and office development may be seen simultaneously an opportunity for a water factory, an electrical generating system, a solid waste management system, a storm water management system, a communications node, an agricultural facility, and so on. Such a transformation will be difficult given the current norms for private property, and existing fee DRAFT A Gulde to Green Inheslnrcture forCenedlen MunA*alBbe m.enrWrOMWRa MO&WA&rk structures and planning policies for municipal and regional utilities. However on- site, sustainable integration becomes increasingly more possible as utilities are deregulated, and as new financial resources are directed towards meeting targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and living within the carrying capacity of the local ecosystems. New design principles and evaluation methods are needed. We need to know how and when designers of larger, urban developments might want to expand the scope of their site evaluations and concept planning in order to address opportunities for on-site infrastructure, and to improve the relationship between their buildings and other elements of the built environment. DRAFT A Guide to Green Infrastructure for Canadian MunkipaNdes The ehOWrOm*Paww C WWWWO in 2. Features that Define "Green" Infrastructure Ten features of green infrastructure are described below. In combination, these features appear to produce Infrastructure systems that are more sustainable. 1. Distributed Centralised plants and facilities are replaced with a variety of smaller scale systems, distributed throughout the service area. The distribution patterns take advantage of renewable resources. New infrastructure Is 'piggybacked' onto local capital projects tike hospitals, schools, parks, and roads. 2. Clustered The distributed network is composed of nodes, structured in a hierarchy,from inter-urban, to antra-urban to intra building. The nodes in this structure offer opportunities for adjusting and optimising the location and the scale of elements within each Infrastructure system. The nodes also provide convenient locations for integration of Infrastructure. Spaces between nodes may be sized to match the scale of the servicing technology, the renewable resource base,food requirements, water treatment and supply needs, and so on. Small spacing helps to keep the resource loops short and efficient. Larger spacing helps to Increase demand diversity so as to even out the loads and thus reduce capital and operating cost per user. 3. Interconnected A multl-service connectivity Is provided between the cluster centre and points of demand and supply, (typically between residential dwellings and other types of buildings), and to storage and treatment facilities. Ideally this multi-service connectivity Is capable of embracing all the flows- Including resources, people and information. One approach may be multi-purpose corridors; another might be utilidors with standardised connections. It is these connections that are used to create loops, - the trading, balancing, reuse and recycling of resources. Ultimately a series of mini loops and bigger loops will lead to a'circular metabolism'for the city and its hinterland. 4. Integrated Integration of Infrastructure means that the system does not stand distinct from the surrounding built and natural environment. Instead the system is functionally integrated at all scales. At the building scale,this may mean that elements of the building serve to capture energy and water and wind, treat and separate wastes, and contribute to accessibility and transportation. These internal collection and separation systems allow the building to produce raw materials like clean, reclaimed water, photovoltaic electricity, used paper, CO2, and so on. At the negibourhood scale systems are Integrated with land uses and with other resource flows. Properly planned,this type of Integration redefines the form and function of the citys built and natural environments. 5. Service-orientation Rather than simply sizing systems for the worst case scenarios and for expandability, green infrastructure Investments are optimised between supply and demand management. Sometimes an Investment in demand side management can serve to reduce the size of loops and permit more efficient resource exchange. Or demand side management may help to avoid expansion of off-site DRAFT A Guide to Green Infrastructure for Canadian Municipalities The She Wrap P4 mConkOr Yc infrastructure, or limit the loads to only what can be accommodated by the neighbourhood scale systems. Underlying this approach is recognition that the objective is no longer to connect buildings and distribute resources, but rather to provide a service. Making infrastructure more sustainable means reducing the energy and resource intensity of the service, while enhancing the value. This concept is sometimes referred to as'eco-efficiency. 6. Responsive One of the advantages of local, smaller scale systems is their ability to respond to the local opportunities and constraints. On the Input side, a system can be designed to accommodate the specific 'waste* resources available from Industry (e.g. sawmill waste, hot water) or from the local environment (tidal power, lake cooling, micro hydro, wetlands). On the output side, a local system can be designed to preserve or enhance the local carrying capacity of the airsheds, watersheds, soils, land base and the Integrity of the local ecosystems. Infrastructure can also respond to the historical patterns for both built and natural environments. What kinds of local plants and animals work well together? —and is it possible to use a similar combination of species and shapes for creating green spaces and cityscapes? Why did the traditional architecture use large roof overhangs, and how might such architectural features become functional elements of on-site Infrastructure? 7. Natural Similar to green buildings, green Infrastructure is intended to maximise use of existing on-site resources and to Incorporate 'living machines' designed to mimic natural ecosystems. Ecologically-engineered systems are used to treat run-off and wastewater with micro-organisms and vegetation. Energy can be recovered from sunshine, micro-hydro, wind, and geothermal. In theory, there Is sufficient local natural resource wealth to provide adequate levels of service for housing, without any additional infrastructure. However from an economic perspective the best solutions are hybrid systems, that supplement the natural resource base with Imported resources. 8. Appropriate The choice of technologies and material used for constructing infrastructure should be appropriate for the user requirements, and for the social environment. Choices should also contribute to greening the entire economy. This means matching high quality resources with the most demanding end uses. For example, high quality water is used for drinking and food production, lower quality water Is matched to washing and flushing,and the lowest quality water is used for Irrigation and water features. High quality energy like electricity Is used for lighting, transportation and motors; natural gas Is used for cogeneration, industrial processes and steam; waste heat is used for space heating. The Infrastructure is constructed from local or Green materials can benefit the entire supply chain. Equipment Is modular and standardised for easy maintenance, and supported with computer intelligence for performance monitoring and easier management. 9. Multl-Purpose Each element in the Infrastructure system can be designed to contribute to a multitude of purposes. This process emulates the elements In a living ecosystem (bio-mimicry). The designer asks: how does the building function like a tree in the forest community? Does it deliver compost, energy, clean water, reflect light onto DRIFr A Guide to Green Infrastructure for Canadian Municipalities 1M 61WIYrGmW Rq CwaWrfbM others for their benefit, and shield others from winds? Does it contribute to transportation networks by its location or by providing passageways? Does It use output from other buildings as Its resource (excess heat from Industrial processes, Green Owaste for fuel generation etc.? Does It maximise the advantages of Its location (solar gain,earth sheltering, wind or water for power) to take care of Itself and meet the needs of others? At the neighbourhood scale the opportunities for multi-purpose design are even greater. A good example Is a"multipurpose pond system"that Is aesthetically landscaped, and that functions as polishing ponds for wastewater, aquaculture ponds, groundwater recharge systems, Irrigation water storage, prefiltered storm water detention ponds,wildlife habitat and emergency firef low reservoirs. 10. Adaptable Adaptability refers to the capacity of systems to accommodate substantial change. Over the course of a system's lifetime, change Is Inevitable, both In the social, economic and physical surroundings, and in the needs and expectations of consumers. All other things being equal, a system that Is more adaptable will be utilised more efficiently, and stay in service longer, because It can respond to changes at a lower cost. A longer and more efficient service life may, in turn, translate into Improved environmental performance over the lifecycle. The concept of adaptability can be broken down into a number of simple strategies that are familiar to most designers: Flexibility, Convertibility, and Expandability. In practice these strategies can be achieved through changes In design, and through the use of alternative materials and technologies. Infrastructure that is smaller scale, and distributed, may be Inherently more adaptable, because it Is less vulnerable to environmental changes or social transformations. It may also be more adaptable than a one-time Investment In large systems, because an incremental pace of growth can accommodate diverse and Innovative technologies and policies. DRAFT A Guide to Green In/restructure for Conedlan Munk4mWes Tnr a1WWY map Pa mca.mw bw 3. The Full Benefits of Green Infrastructure If green Infrastructure contributes to urban sustainability, then it must generate significant benefits In all three spheres: social, economic and environmental. Potential benefits are discussed below in general terms. A good background In the full scope of potential benefits can help each of us promote the concepts, and achieve optimum results from new designs. Interestingly, the same potential benefits can accrue to each type of green Infrastructure system. More detailed examples of benefits will be described later on, when this Guide addresses Best Practices and Case Studies. Social Benefits Resilience A cluster structure, with diverse technologies, can be much more resilient when confronted with Ice storms, earthquakes, tsunamis,fire, terrorism, civil unrest and other calamities. Loads can be shared if one system is destroyed, and resources can be substituted at the scale most appropriate. Aesthetics On-site Infrastructure offers new opportunities for beatification of public spaces and creating s sense of plane. The vegetation and watercourses associated with open storm water systems, for example. A number of communities in Europe have used leading architects to design the local wastewater treatment Greenhouses and the community heat and power plants. Regardless of the design value, the Integrated, on-site elements of Green Infrastructure offer cities and new'human scale' land use. Multiple use The multiple use of Infrastructure Investments increases the benefits from Infrastructure Investments. Flexibility Sometimes it can be a problem to locate new growth in specific locations because of the need to pump sewage or extend pipelines. On-site infrastructure can thus allow cities to more effectively use the land base. Contribution to a 'Sense of Place' As more elements of infrastructure are integrated into buildings and nelghbourhoods, the systems become visible - adding distinctive landmarks and a more holistic theme for each neighbourhood. Conflict Avoidance and Resolution It Is becoming increasingly difficult to export wastes from cities, and to locate large Infrastructure elements, Including facilities and right-of-ways: Incorporating Infrastructure Into the more organic process of development is likely to be more amenable to community control and acceptance. A Greater Choice of Lifestyles A diversity of Infrastructure systems creates the possibility for greater choice In lifestyle. Neighbourhoods can make trade-offs between convenience and cost. DR9Fr A Guide to Green Inlraslnrclure for Canadian Munkoalifin The SWWr Gmup Pa mCom0wa Yn Economic Benefits Lower costs Green Infrastructure often results in lower lifecycle costs when compared to traditional larger-scale, non-integrated systems. Demand side management reduces the need for public expenditure. If waste products are converted Into resources, this creates a revenue stream for the consumers. Small-scale facilities may need much simpler fail-safe systems, which can greatly lower capital costs. Delayed capital outlays Green Infrastructure is more Incremental, since some (or all) of the elements are located in buildings or at the neighbourhood level. This creates opportunities for more phasing of the Investments, and thus delays major capital expenditures. It is easier to match capacity with demand, and thus to avoid the costs of over-sizing systems. User-pay To the extent that Infrastructure elements and functions can be Integrated into buildings or urban development projects, the municipality and utility can off-load a portion of the capital costs to the users. This is consistent with a User pay principle, and encourages more efficiency and conservation. Longer-term Investments by stakeholders As building owners and developers become stakeholders in the creation of utility services, they are likely to see the wisdom of investing in demand side management and lifecycle costing. For example, if a developer can partner with a micro utility, and offer housing with exceptionally low operating costs, the housing Is certain to be more marketable. This can provide insurance for the developer, and allow the developer to participate in the long-term revenue stream related to provision of services like water, waste, energy, and communications. The Incentives are thus created for private sector investments in high performance housing. Local Job Creation Green infrastructure creates more employment within the community. Instead of importing products like electricity, gas or water, and construction and operating facilities In remote locations,jobs are closer to where people live. Investments in demand side management circulate money within the local economy, Instead of directly exporting the dollars. The looping of waste materials back Into raw materials creates new Industries and long-term employment. The more efficient systems, and buildings, leave more dollars In the hands of local residents. Once raw materials are reclaimed, additional processes can be Integrated within the building and/or neighbourhood to process the raw materials Into products. In this way the building becomes part of the municipal and industrial ecology. At the nelghbourhood scale, elements may be Integrated into public works and land use. Local procurement Infrastructure elements that are Integrated at the local scale frequently Involve local procurement, which boosts business in the community. DRIFT A Guide to Green Infrastructure for Canadian MunkipaNtles The ShWW,OW n..wiw odrmre k Security Large systems dependent upon a single resource flow are dangerous for the economy, as can be witnessed from the recent flight of businesses from California after the most recent natural gas scarcities. The natural and adaptable features of green infrastructure thus provide businesses with a lower risk of business disruption. This also applies to virus attacks, natural disasters, and other crises. Quality of service Many types of green Infrastructure actually provide a higher quality of service and provide communities with a competitive edge. District heating, for example, can be more reliable and more professionally managed and maintained than would ever be possible for a single building system, and the users save floor space and staffing. Work at home options, and a good match between housing and jobs, can significantly reduce the transportation and overhead costs for businesses and employees. Environmental Benefits Efficiency More efficient use of resources due to reductions in the distribution system, reduced overall capacity, and better matching of resource quality to the user's needs. Innovation and Upgrading A distributed system using small scale, cluster structure technologies;is a system that Is well suited for trying out new technologies, and for integrating technological advances in a rapid, Incremental style. The marginal investments in new Infrastructure can be up-to-date with the latest (and rapidly Improving) technology, and this helps to upgrade the average efficiency of the entire system over Its lifetime. Responsiveness Because green Infrastructure is responsive to local conditions, it can respect local carrying capacity- and avoid damaging environmentally sensitive areas. For example, if a community is located close to wetlands that are at risk, then the new housing developments can employ biofiltration technologies and other natural systems that contribute to restoring and enhancing the wetland. Synergy By converting wastes Into raw resources within the city, green Infrastructure creates new opportunities for commercial and industrial activity close to where people work and live. These short loops contribute to the emergence of municipal and industrial ecologies. Land use can be explicitly organised around maximising the potential synergy from converting wastes Into profitable resources and commodities. Biodiverslty By responding to environmental constraints, and Incorporating ecological systems as elements of infrastructure, the blodiversity is Increased and strengthened. DRAFT A Guide to Green Infrastructure for Canadian Munldpaudes . The SWWr OmW Fl a Cw"W K 4. Best Practices for Green Infrastructure Storm Water Systems A Green Perspective Historically it made sense to pipe storm water away from urban areas, and dump It straight Into the receiving waters. Pipes were needed regardless (for sewage) and these sunk costs made alternative storm water systems appear costly. This situation has now changed. Piped storm water needs to be treated in order to protect the quality of receiving waters, and this treatment adds significantly to operating costs. Moreover the capacity requirements of the treatment plant, and pipes, needs to be much larger to cope with the peak storm flows- or the result is overflows and pollution. As cities age, the storm water pipes are becoming costly and difficult to maintain and replace. And the quantity of storm water flow Is Increasing as urban areas become dense, mixed use communities with a high percentage of Impervious area. For all these reasons the traditional curb, gutter and storm drain systems are contributing to higher cost sewage treatment systems, system failures, and Increasing run-off into watercourse. The Increased run-off water causes deterioration in water quality, bank erosion, increased flooding, low summer base flows and degradation of fish habitat and riparian ecosystems. The best way to avoid these Impacts is to eliminate most of the storm water pipes, and Instead slow down and store the runoff, and release It slowly,to more closely mimic natural conditions. Essentially the built environment of a city has to function like a forest in the rain.Three approaches are possible: 1. Increase tree and vegetative cover to increase capture of rain above ground, and to increase evapotranspiration, 2. absorb rainfall back Into the ground where it is filtered and returned slowly to the receiving waters, by Interflow in the soils, and 3. store stormwater in shaded detention storage areas. Regardless of which approaches are used, the best strategy is always to start at the source-the Impervious building and site. Rainfall capture on private building parcels should be maximised, and then supplemented and balanced as necessary by means of improved street design,and storage ponds or wetlands downstream. Integration of Storm Water Systems at the Scale of Building and Site In high-density urban areas much of the building site will be dedicated to roof areas. Directing roof runoff to cisterns allows It to be collected and stored. Depending upon the natural environmental conditions at the site, this stored water could be either released slowly to the stream, and/or reused as non-potable water In the building for toilet flushing and laundry purposes. There is also a role for garden irrigation. Integration of Storm Water Systems at the Neighbourhood Scale Natural surface drainage consists of grass swales, vegetated strips, detention areas and constructed wetlands, -all of which can be used to replace most of the DRAFT A Guide to Green Inlresfrudure for Ceneden MunklpaWw Tm el,"r OmW Ra mCwwAU bm conventional curbs, gutters and pipes. Surface drainage is significantly less costly than conventional systems,with average savings in capital costs of about 30%. Maintenance costs may be slightly higher, although it is sometimes possible to allocate these costs to parks and recreation since the 'open' system provides more diverse and attractive landscaping, with improved microclimate, habitat and food production. Some of the elements of a neighbourhood scale storm water system are: • Detention ponds temporarily detain runoff for up to 24 hours, using a fixed outlet to regulate ouff low at a specified rate. This allows solids and pollutants to settle out. • Vegetated strips are areas of land with vegetative cover that are designed to acceptrunoff. • Permeable swales are shallow, vegetated trenches that transport run-off as surface drainage to detention areas or catch basins. They allow for percolation, nutrient uptake and the reduction of the transportation of suspended solids. Swales along road ways can very effectively Intercept and store run-off water, especially if the swale is constructed using deep soils, with high organic content(25%). Integration of Storm Water Systems with other forms of Infrastructure A green storm water infrastructure can be Integrated into systems for transportation, food production, sewage treatment, and organic solid waste management. Some common synergies are: • Use of deep landscape soils throughout the city Increases plant growth, and substantially reduces Irrigation requirements. These soils can also be used on rooftops, where they act as a temperature buffer, or In community gardens and private gardens where they are ideal for vegetables. • The organic matter additive to the above soils can come from composting operations that divert organic waste from the solid waste stream, or from composted sewage sludge. On-site composting by occupants can also provide an on-going supply of topdress. • Storage of roof rainwater in cisterns reduces stormwater Impacts, but also provides water for limited irrigation (drip systems), flush toilets or laundry purposes, with corresponding reductions in potable water supply from municipal systems. • Infiltration systems can be integrated with walking/cycling routes and public squares, by using pervious paving materials and plantings. • Surface run-off and treatment systems can sometimes be combined with bio- remediatlon and constructed wetlands for sewage treatment, for enhanced water flows and wetland performance. DRAFT A Guide to Green Infrastructure for Canadian Munklpalltles TM&MWr Gmup Ra mCmWIWK Liquid Waste A Green Perspective A number of companies and communities in Canada have been adopting Integrated, ecological approaches to wastewater treatment and water reclamation. Successful experiences with constructed wetlands, general public disdain for reliance upon chemical processes for wastewater treatment, and the growing acceptability of natural systems for treatment have set the stage for broader application. Green wastewater Infrastructure can offer superior service by removing VOCs, hydrocarbons, nutrients, herbicides and pesticides, In addition to pathogens. Moreover they don't simply manage the waste, but Instead transform the resource into reclaimed water, soils, nutrients, COs and biodiversity. Integration at Building and Site • Septic tanks at the building: Multi-unit residential buildings in urban areas can be equipped with water-tight concrete septic tanks, next to their foundation. These tanks can then become the primary treatment stage for all wastewater. The advantage of locating the primary treatment system at the building level, is that it becomes possible to provide very low cost, flexible and advanced secondary treatment at the neighbourhood scale. Basically a submersible pump is used to decant the fluid in the septic tank, and transport it through small diameter PVC pipes over long distances to a neighbourhood scale aerobic or anaerobic digester. (see below) • Composting Toilets: Waterless composting toilets enable the building to be disconnected from the sanitary system. The aerobic composting system is continually ventilated and reduces the volume of waste by 90%.The end product is a humus-like soil amendment product that Is rich in nitrogen other useful elements. Returning nutrient rich humus to the earth restores depleted soil conditions. Fluid waste is treated in small reed patches next to building. Substantial amounts of water are saved relative to conventional flush toilets. Integration at Neighbourhood Scale • Constructed Wetlands: Wetlands constructed specifically for the purpose of treating run-off and wastewater are known as"constructed wetlands". These 'permanent pool'temporarily impound runoff, and settle and retain suspended solids and associated pollutants. Two approaches are possible: Surface flow wetlands that are suitable for buildings or large clusters, and subsurface flow wetlands suitable for smaller volumes (using 1/4 the land area but at 4 times the cost). When properly designed and operated, surface flow wetland systems are similar to tertiary treatment -they effectively reduce biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, nitrogen, metals, trace organics and pathogens In wastewater to levels that meet environmental standards. • Advanced Secondary Treatment using Aggregate or Membrane Filtration: These systems can be dedicated to serve large multi-unit residential buildings, or clusters, or even small towns. Essentially a piped system transfers effluent from septic tanks to a central location. A recirculation pump repeatedly sprays the effluent over a subterranean gravel or membrane filter, which drains back to the tank. After 2 or 3 days of periodic spraying,the anaerobic digestion is complete, and the effluent Is colourless and odourless (although still high in nitrogen). This treated effluent is suitable DRIFT A Guide to Green inrresiniaure for Canadian Munk4mw e nr Sh"f o"nnaui••CwwAWr m - for use in augmenting and flushing ponds and rivers, and for use in irrigation, in non-potable water systems, and In Industrial processes. The filter bed can occupy a small area between the cluster of buildings, where It can serve as an outdoor courtyard for passive recreation. • Solar Aquatic sewage treatment systems: Solar Aquatics is an ecologically-engineered sewage treatment technology that replicates the natural purifying processes of fresh water streams, meadows and wetlands. Wastewater flows through a series of clear-sided tanks located In Greenhouses, and then through en ineered streams and constructed marshes where contaminants are Case Study: Solar Aquatics technology Is used to treat metabolised or bound up. the waste of Bear River,a small community in Nova Bacteria, aiges, plants and Scotia. The technology was designed to replace ageing aquatic animals are all part of on-site septic systems,which were prone to failure. It the treatment system. Solar was built for$600,000,less than the average provincial cost per connection. It was considered cost effective Aquatics technology can be mainly because of the savings achieved over the used to treat sewage flows from conventional plant design that had to pipe the sewage. 20,000-500,000 gallons per day. The treatment has been applied to sewage, septage, boat waste and Ice cream processing waste. • Biofititratlon Marshes: Where appropriate, protect sites Case Study:Northam Pothole biofiltration swales and marshes will p Lakes and Constructed Wetland In from offsite contaminated waters. These swales Prince George. also provide narrow wildlife corridors and erosion control on steeper sites. Integration of Llquld Waste Systems with other forms of infrastructure • Heat from Sewage: In a decentralised water reclamation system, energy can be extracted from discharged water by highly efficient water-to-water heat pumps and then used to heat water for space conditioning of Greenhouses and other buildings. • Reclaimed Water: Tertiary treated sewage can be classified and sold as reclaimed water when taken through a number of additional and prudent steps (UV disinfection, carbon and membrane filtration). Alternatively the reclaimed water can be used for irrigation of golf courses, parks and grounds, or for toilet flushing, construction uses such as aggregate washing, concrete manufacture; wetland and stream augmentation. Permaculture landscaping can help to convert water reclamation facilities Into productive and diverse gardening systems, converting the nutrients Into useful biomass and biodiversity. • Methane capture: municipal organic wastes and sewage produce methane which can be piped to buildings or to a cogeneration plant for electrical generation and heat. Some Sewage treatment plants are powered and heated by methane from this source. • Bioponics: An integration of aquaculture Case Study:a sewage reclamation,land and hydroponics Is defined as a reclamation and permaculture project In Deir Ails,Jordan,a Red Alder Plantation/Solar "bloponics"system. Usually housed in a Aquatics and a Solar Aquatics"Vlvero"(plant Greenhouse, these systems can be nursery)in Playa del Carman,Metdoo Integrated with Greenhouse based water reclamation systems. DRAFT A ouide to areen infrashucture for Canadian Munk4mfts The ahYWre,ap R"wu,n C•r WmW K 1 • Humus: sludge is collected from sewage treatment plants and used to support the storm water filtration systems and other types of urban landscaping, agriculture production and land restoration. • Use of Oxygen from Hydrolysis: In advanced water reclamation, aeration is the most expensive mechanical component to operate (energy). Most are based on bubbling atmospheric air(approx. 20% oxygen)through a column of water. This is the main constraint to size and thus capital costs of sewage treatment infrastructure. What element could we add that might allow us to significantly downsize equipment and facilities? The answer is pure oxygen, which Is a by-product of hydrogen generation through electrolysis. Placing a hydrogen generating plant next to a wastewater treatment facility or "integrating"them could theoretically result in a massive reduction In size of advanced tertiary treatment. Potable Water Systems A Green Perspective: Green potable water infrastructure focuses on matching the quality of water to the end use, and on cascading water flows through a series of uses. High quality potable water is best used only for top-grade drinking water, or by the food and beverage Industries. Other functions, such as toilet flushing, landscape irrigation, clothes and dish washing, and so on, can be fulfilled using non-potable water such as greywater. Some demand management is key since so little has been done to optimise the investment between end use technologies (low flow fixtures, water efficient appliances, drought resistant gardening, etc.) and the Increased supply of water. Load management is also a strategy, and may Include on-slte storage of potable water, as well as behavioural modification (through metering, rate structures, water bans and so on). Integration of Building and site • Grey water systems • Cisterns Puntegale Grey Water Case Study • Two-pipe systems for use of The Puntegale Is an apartment building In reclaimed water: An increasing Amsterdam. It houses close 600 tenants. The number of cities are adopting two- Puntegale project achieves water conservation from pipe systems for all new buildings the collection and reuse of rainwater. Two tanks with (e.g. San Diego, Hong Kong). This a combined capacity of 62,600 m3 collect and store roach ensures that potable water rainwater. This water Is used by residents for toilet approach p flushing. The system saves an estimated 6 million Is only used for drinking and litres of water per year from toilet flushing alone. In washing, and that irrigation and addition to this type of water bnd-use,the Puntegale flushing is accomplished using also offers optional connections to the rainwater reclaimed water. system for clothes washing. Tenants have the choice of washing their clothes with municipal water or with Integration at the Neighbourhood rainwater. If only one-quarter of the dwelling units Scale connect to the rainwater system,water savings would be another 3 million litres per year. • Greywater Reuse Systems DRAFT A Guide to Green intrasirudure for Canadian Munfcipastla TM ehWWrenW Ra CwadwYk Greywater includes water from bathtubs, showers, bathroom wash basins, and water from clothes washing machines laundry tubs. It does not Include wastewater from kitchen sinks or dishwashers. • Water Reclamation: San Diego Water Reclamation Case Study Reclaimed water Is wastewater The City of San Diego's Reclamation plant has a 30 million that has been treated to meet gallon-per-day capacity. Three additional reclamation or exceed drinking water plants will be built In the future. Currently,It generates standards before being 14,000 acre-feet annually. This water Is reused for industrial processes and irrigation only. There Is a reintroduced in to the raw proposal to treat 22,000 acre-feet of wastewater annually Water supply. for a potable(drinking)water supply. This water would be Integration with other types of treated using state-of the-art technology(microfiltration, 9 yP reverse osmosis,desalinatlon),it would be delivered to a Infrastructure reservoir for mixing with stormwater and Imported water. • Air conditioning in urban This supply would be withdrawn on-demand—filtered, centres b USIn potable water disinfected—and supplied to customers through the citys Y g P potable water distribution system.The water reclamation systems as a coolant. project Is a long-term program that will serve more than • Heat pumps can extract heat 700 square miles. Up to 50,000 acre-feet of reclaimed from potable water systems. water will be added annually to the region's water supply, doubling existing average local supply. The total coat of the program Is expected to be$646 million,with an annual Energy Systems cost of$90041200 per-acre-fool. The cost Is competitive with the costs of developing new Imported and local water A Green Perspective supplies. The 1998 population of San Diego was 2.5 Green energy Infrastructure refers I million people. primarily to systems that rely on low-Impact renewable sources. These resources can vary depending upon the location, and Include wind, sunshine, geothermal, run-of-river hydro,tidal and wave power, wood waste, landfill gas and biogas, agricultural,forestry and animal wastes, and lake and ocean cooling. Generally the use of renewable resources can greatly benefit from larger energy grids. The grid absorbs peak demands, and acts as a storage system when renewable sources are surplus. Green energy infrastructure is also integrated and planned as part of a system that connects all activities within the city. Municipalities in northern Europe have demonstrated the advantages of urban plans that create such energy systems, rather than focusing only on energy conservation and efficiency. A planned system helps to ensure a mix of energy supply, and a more effective matching of energy quality to end-use. Buildings and industries become both suppliers and consumers of heat and power. Energy flows are engineered to cascade from the highest quality to lowest quality uses. Distribution losses and transformation losses are minimised throughout on-site generation. The urban form and building placements are carefully designed to optimise use of on-site forces. Energy resources are extracted from all other resource flows within the city. As the energy marketplace is deregulated, and becomes diverse, all cites will face new choices about their energy partners and their mix of energy sources, and how energy commodities are converted stored and transferred. Such choices can radically alter the energy efficiency of the entire city. For example the City of Toronto converts raw energy resources like coal and uranium Into usable energy at an estimated efficiency of 50%, while the City of Helsinki, which uses waste heat from energy generation to heat 91%of the housing, achieves an efficiency of DRIFT A Guide to Green Infrastructure for Canadian Municipalities Tko&WWremW Ra Ow WWb Ym 68%.' In future the involvement of cities in energy systems planning will become an Important strategy for enhancing the competitiveness of local Industry, and for achieving goals for housing affordability and cleaner air. Building and site • Solar space heating. Many surfaces on buildings can serve to harness solar energy. Passive solare heating already reperesents about 15%of the energy supply to houses. • Photovoltaic panels on roofs and.awnings are being use in n many subdivisions to generate electricity, much of which Is fed back Into the grid. The grid allows this energy source to be utilised continuously: office roofs supplement power to houses on weekends, houses supplement power to the offices weekdays, and so on. • Solar hot water heating at the building level has the potential for supplying over 50%of total needs. • Solar-powered parking lot lighting Integration at the Neighbourhood Scale • Longterm storage facilities can be provided at the neighbourhood scale. For example, a large underground reservoir can be heated from solar water heaters mounted on bulidings In a cluster. In this way, the summer sunshine Is stored, and is can contribute from 50 %to 70 %of the overall heating demand in the cluster. The storage volume can be Incrementally Increased to match the growth of housing, using earth ducts with high mass. • Cluster systems for space heating and cooling • Co-generation • District heating using local energy sources • Methane from landfill and composters • Turbines in storm and water distribution systems • Micro-hydro • Wind turbines Integration of Energy Infrastructure with Other Types of Infrastructure • Incineration of wastes • Methane from digesters and landfills • Heat pumps drawing heat from sewage and water • Photovoltaic arrays along highway systems • Mini Turbine generators In water supply and storm water systems Solid Waste Systems A Green Perspective Green Infrastructure from the perspective of solid waste involves moving to small- scale systems that do not result in the myriad of Issues associated with large- scale landfills. These include such approaches as: • separation of waste Into different streams • high-rate composting DRAFT A Guide to Green Inireafrudure for Canadian MunidpOINN The&Wndraiwp R"W"OowWmb•n Integration of Building and site . ■ Compost Production: Blosolids, biomass and offsite community based organic materials can be composted onsite with combinations of in-vessel composters and vermiculture composters. Useful heat and CO2 can be added to Greenhouses to increase productivity. Integration at Neighbourhood Scale • Composting Is a managed system that uses microbial activity to degrade raw organic materials, such as yard trimmings, so the end-product is relatively stable, reduced In quantity and free of offensive odours. It produces a humus- like material that can be recycled as a soil amendment and fertiliser substitute. Composting can be done on a neighbourhood scale, where organic waste is arranged in long rows, turned periodically, while occupying only a few acres of land. • Aerobic digesters use thermophilic (heat responsive) microbes to process organic waste over a 72-hour period with zero harmful environmental discharge.The digested waste Is converted Into organic fertiliser products with high market value in both liquid and dry-pellet form. Transportation Systems A Green Perspective Green transportation Infrastructure begins by redefining transportation as a service. The object is accessibility, not moving people. Hence the green infrastructure for transportation may actually consist of land use planning that locates jobs close to or inside houses, and that ensures clusters of services like shops and schools are within walkable distances from most residences. Thus the cluster structure is a key element of design. The connections between clusters, at varying scales, should also provide resource efficient transport, Including the provision of a safe, dependable and convenient transit system, the enhancement of amenities for non-vehicular transpOort (bicycles and walking) and the provision of amenities for non-fuel powered vehicles. Electricity generated from renewable resources is especially well suited for light rail systems and trolleys. Integration of Building and site • Complementary Building Occupancies: Separation of commercial, retail and residential areas; availability of efficient and reliable public transit; and the dangers of cycling and other human-powered transportation all affect the need for automobile commuting and storage. Parking spaces in mixed-use buildings and developments can often be shared between occupancies with differing schedules, reducing the area of impervious parking pavement, stormwater peak flows and pollution. As well, locating several complementary occupancies within a project—housing, services, retail, commercial and/or light Industry—often eliminates the need for many automobile trips, encouraging more low-Impact transportation modes, such as biking, walking and mass transit. • Pedestrian and Bicycle Amenities: Making streets safer and more attractive to pedestrians, providing bicycle facilities at destinations and creating safe, continuous bicycle paths also reduce the need for automobiles. Bicycling, walking and even in-line DR9Fr A Guide to Green Infrastructure for Canadian Munlclpallllee Tr Sh"r OMW R�"CmuJUMK skating are alternatives to the car for shorter commuter distances, and for greater distances when combined with public transit. Building design strategies can encourage these options by providing secure bicycle parking, shower and changing facilities. Encouraging pedestrian activity Is not only a way to decrease automobile use, with Its fossil fuel dependence, air and water pollution, it is also a way of bringing life to the streets and increasing the safety of the community. If people feel safe on the sidewalks, they also feel safe In the city. Buildings can Improve the comfort and safety of pedestrians with appropriately scaled and detailed facades and views of the street for building occupants. If pedestrians are also provided with a choice of sun or shade,they are more likely to use these outdoor spaces. An attractive street generates places for social interaction, Increasing the vitality of the neighbourhood and providing better commercial opportunities. Development projects designed for pedestrians and cyclists are increasingly valued places to live,work and visit. Owners of buildings that enhance the quality of the neighbourhood will benefit both directly and Indirectly—Increased pedestrian traffic Is better for retail businesses, and people are attracted to vital areas, enhancing the market value of the buildings. Integration with other Infrastructure • Transportation routes serve as Integrated utilidors with heaUcooVpiping, methane, hydrogen, communications and so on • Walk and cycle paths can function as filtration strips for storm water • Walkable communities can use central locations to provide residents with access to material recycling and reuse • Urban run-off from paved surfaces carries with it pollutants such as fuel, oil,paint, heavy metals, pesticides, human and animal wastes, and trash. By reducing surface car parking areas, increasing the permeability of surfaces not used for car movement, and Integrating natural landscaping into car parking areas, urban run-off can be naturally treated, ground water supplies replenished and pollution reduced. • Shading of parking areas and building surfaces reduces the amount of solar radiation reaching them, which significantly lowers building cooling loads and operating costs. Furthermore, natural landscaping within the city provides habitat for many plant and animal species, and green areas are more attractive to building users and pedestrians than hard landscapes and pavement. 5. Making it Happen Understanding the forms and functions of green Infrastructure is not enough to achieve green Infrastructure. Integrated, multi-functional Infrastructure projects are by their nature a difficult sell. Many of the benefits are Indirect, the risks appear to be substantial, and the number of stakeholders can be overwhelming. Extremely challenging obstacles must be addressed (see sidebar). All of which helps to explain why it is so Important to adopt the most successful processes, and to employ the right tools. Some especially useful strategies are outlined below. Cities that can learn to adopt these strategies, and learn as they go, are the cities that will remain in control of their fate, and reap the benefits. DRIFT A Gulds to Green lnbeatnidure for Caned/en Munk"NOVe The abeW Gmw naouia Cv&Jwft w Common Obstacles to Greening your Infrastructure • Formulas thinking: Engineers have been trained to use slice-end-dice,component-based design methods that are simple,dear,and wrong,because they opgmise components in Isolation(thus pesslmizing•the systems of which they are a part)and locus on single rather than multiple beneflls. • Fragmentation of authority.Historically, the development of each type of Infrastructure occurred at different times,largely in Isolation. This has left us with agencies,Industries, and monopolies organised around speclalised mandates,and with compartmentamsed woridviews. • Fragmentation of ecologies: Il is especially hard to respond to local carrying capacity and constraints it the benefits are eroded by other decislon-makers. For example, reducing pollution In your valley or river can be pointless If another)udst fiction, upstream, then chooses to pollute at much higher levels. For example,the lower mainland of BC has been Improving air quality for the last 10 years,but this Is now threatened by a proposed powerplant sitediust across the US border. • Sunk Investments: The very substantial capital outlays that have been dedicated to existing Infrastructure can eliminate the potential for cost savings from Green Infrastructure. Sometimes property taxes are already predicated on paying for larger, centrallsed systems,and thus anyone who Invests more money to reduce reliance upon such systems, ends up paying twice. • Inflexible policies:Many types of existing policies prevent holistic thinking and on-she applications. The worst problem Is the many prescriptive policies that only recognise one way of achleving results(the status quo)and thus frustrate Innovation within the market place. Health and safely policies may not reflect the new ecological technologies,and the relative Importance of protecting environment Land use policies may run completely counter to the concept of mixed use and municipal ecology. • Bundled fees: Subsidies and fees are often structured In ways that are Insensitive to variations In user loads and consumption rates. For example,development cost charges may be based entirely upon factors like zoning and floor area, despite the possibility that the design of Greener buildings may reduce or even eliminate the requirement for certain types of municipal Infrastructure Investments. • Rate-basing: The common practice of distributing new capital costs across all users of a service can sometimes send the wrong message to those customers making Investment decisions. While It may be many times less expensive for a builder, for example, to reduce electricity loads or peak water consumption through on-site technology,than for the utility to Invest in Increasing the supply at the margin, the financial Incentives are lost because of rate basing.All users pay the price Instead of the one with power to decide. This situation Is especially problematic when-as Is often the case-a small Increase In the load from buildings results In the need fora whole new power generator or water reservoir. • Larger utilities supporting status quo: Despite efforts at deregulation,HIS still possible for large utilities to influence the market and to purposely under-price new Initiatives that threaten their market base. • Lack of comprehensive cost/benefit models: Cost benefit modelling of Infrastructure options cannot currently account for the potential benefits of Integrated systems,since the models are not broad enough. DRAFT A Guide to Green Intrastmcture for Canadian Municlpalalss The Sh W,emW aww,w C"Uwft rn Total Cost Assessment Green Infrastructure is a non-starter as long as cities apply conventional accounting practices, that separate budgets into'silos', and that reward false economles. For example, a city engineering department may choose to save costs by purchasing less efficient and less costly aerators for sewage treatment. However from a'total cost' perspective the savings are false, since another department will have to pay extra costs in order to operate the aerators over the next 15 years. The solution is Total Cost Assessment (TCA),which expands the analysis to include a broader range of direct, Indirect, contingent and less quantifiable costs. TCA can optimise the looping of money and reallocate cost savings from one type of Infrastructure to another in order to finance the lower cost Integrated system. For example, if mixed-use communities require less travel and therefore smaller roads, then take money from the roads budget to pay for amenities In the denser, mixed use areas of city. And take money from highway construction and upkeep, and Invest in buildings that allow people to work more at home, and in systems for co-ordinating tole-workers and buses. In a highly Integrated system, It Is necessary to create.a"megafund"for redistributing money across all classes of infrastructure interventions The Integrated Design Process Many green Infrastructure solutions are intimately related to decisions about urban form, open space and land use. Thus it is vital to consider the Infrastructure simultaneously with land use concept planning - something which is not usually done nor typically required as part of the Development Approvals process.The best method for addressing these Issues is to require that all partners and departments adopt the Integrated Design Process (IDP)for all major site development, construction, renovation projects planning. IDP Involves creating a design team with a wider range of technical experts, local stakeholders, and partners than is normal. It engages more of these participants at very early stages of the project, and uses their expertise to Influence seminal design decisions. The entire design team may participate in a target-setting workshop at the beginning of a project. Energy modelling and value analysis may be conducted in parallel with concept design work. Whole system engineering is required to provide broad thinking about the technical options for providing urban services. Extra effort Is typically required to ensure that the IDP team has adequate public Input, since green Infrastructure Is premised on a new vision for the community, - a vision based upon a shared set of values. Typically, if all stakeholders' needs were considered in a project,then the best solutions become obvious. The greater variety and number of participants may mean that the design process can benefit from a facilitator. Because more decision-making is made In the early stages of design, more time is needed up front in the design process. However the additional time taken up front is usually recovered during the construction documents phase, due to early decision-making and better co-ordination between disciplines. The benefits of IDP are more satisfied clients, and building designs DRIFT A Oulde 10 Oreen Wroslnicture for Conedlan MunkORINsa The S W WrGmW RMw"Ow Cw wanu lro that are optimised for higher performance adopt concept engineering for all urban services may be sometimes be a primary consideration in the design process. Participation In Public Private Partnerships With a separation between private and public ownership of buildings, and with fragmented management of utility systems, it is getting Increasingly difficult to finance multi-media and multi-company utility collectors, even in locations where local building and land use conditions are favourable, such as revitalised downtown areas. A key role for the municipality is to partner with businesses to create more Integrated and smaller scale Infrastructure. While the municipalities' role may be small, their involvement adds a large measure of confidence to the Investors, and to the marketplace. The lower the perceived risk among the stakeholders, the more affordable It becomes to finance the projects. For this reason, municipal participation, In the form of public private partnerships (PPPs) can be an essential enabling strategy. Micro-utilities Neighbourhood scale integration raises substantial difficulties In terms of ownership, liability and maintenance of Infrastructure systems. Often this is the greatest obstacle to embracing Green Infrastructure. One solution Is to facilitate the creation of small, community-based utilities that are capable of managing all aspects of shared Infrastructure for the cluster. Every connection (i.e. everyone connected to a sewage system) is then automatically a stakeholder with revenue Incentives to use the system responsibly. Success of resource recovery approaches may require some guarantee of buyers for the products. Stakeholders have a built-in incentive to consume the products (trees, water, bedding plants,flowers, tropical plants, compost, materials, etc.)from their"own" utility thereby supporting its revenues and their dividends. Planning for a Municipal Ecology Ecological city planning Involves land use planners and engineers in co-ordinating the flow of resources with the needs of consumers, and the localised Industrial strategy. Like a natural ecology, an urban-industrial ecology is designed to create no waste. Instead resources (or nutrients) should cascade through different processes (or organisms). If the local Industry uses lots of water, urban planners must look for other Industries that can locate nearby, and reuse the same water. If the local agriculture creates lots of fibre waste, urban planners look for Industries that can use the fibre for other uses, or as a source of energy. If local office buildings need to be cooled in winter, planners must consider locating smaller buildings nearby so the waste heat can be pumped to where It Is beneficial. It Is from these perspectives that it becomes possible to create land use patterns that facilitate use of renewable resources on-site, waste products from urban activities, and industrial activities. Such plans can only be created by cities that partner with their pillar Industries, and with local educational institutions and specialist-consulting teams. The goal Is to explore new scenarios for urban energy and mass flows. The research Involves examining the Interface between land use and Infrastructure, on the one hand, and the marketplace, industrial processes, local resources, and skills on the other. This is obviously not an easy task, but the environmental benefits of such DRAFT A Guide to Green Infrastructure for Canadian Munlc4mil des The eMOar Cimm Ru Cw&J r kw waste utilisation and improved system efficiencies are likely to exceed any other city Initiative. Locate new growth of population in those locations where Infrastructure has excess capacity, or where distances can be minimised for moving resources, or where potential existing for creating municipal ecology Increasingly it is possible to change the nature of city infrastructure and urban form by addressing building scale technology. Radical changes in housing design such as autonomous housing, or Green housing, or work-at-home housing, or co- housing or flexible housing, can Impact transit design, parks and Green space, potential for district energy, demand for community centres and so on. Eco-city designs must therefore Include finer scale worked-out examples as part of urban master plans, and analyse their relationship to the larger features of the city plan. Risk Management Civil engineering Is a discipline that is by nature risk averse. However a number of techniques may be used to facilitate the acceptance of unfamiliar technologies for Green Infrastructure. The basic strategy is to reduce the perceived risk by means of three tools: 1. Pilot tests. Significant changes are Introduced In stages, and are carefully evaluated before widespread adoption. Pilot projects are often the most effective learning tools, and are particularly well suited to Green infrastructure. A pilot can happen at a small scale quickly and can take advantage of the redundancy provided by larger existing systems 2. Contingency plans: The plans must clearly outline the approach to resolving failures, and may actually layer green infrastructure on top of traditional Infrastructure for his purpose. 3. Precedents: Past experience with the same technology can be well documented, and verifies that what Is planned has been Policies for Encouraging Lean and Mean proven to work well In another Management location. 1. Focus on facilities communities and ecosystems 2. Emphasise multi-media, multi-stressor Policies that Reward solutions Performance 3. Base standards on required performance,not Many policy tools are needed to design facilitate Green Infrastructure. 4. Emphasise continuous Improvement,not bright-line fixed compliance Especially useful are marginal 5. Expand the use of measurement and pricing, specific regulations for feedback types of technology, and use of 6. Increase community Involvement in setting weighting systems for evaluation goals and evaluating progress of proposals. Policy reform is a 7. Provide different levels o regulation for crucial prerequisite. Some different levels of performance excellent literature can be found 6. Use fiscal tools and market incentives on this subject. J. Atcheson, of whenever possible the USDOE, has established 10 9. Regulate at the lowest jurisdiction possible; principless for designing assign responsibilities to the jurisdiction best environmental regulations in the able to carry them out 21e1 century, as shown opposite. 10. Concurrent and coherent policies DROT A Guide to Green Infrastructure for Canadian Municipalities 1M ehYUlr Drag Rawra CmWUau Ina An Environmental Management Framework A comprehensive Environmental Management Framework is another vital tool for steering an effective public process and brokering Green Infrastructure solutions. Frameworks create a mental map for setting and Justifying specific environmental recommendations. They become the underlying structure through which cities can transcend motherhood statements and provide tangible, measurable targets for designing and assessing the performance of a community. Frameworks have recently achieved considerable success in helping diverse groups reach consensus and create bold visions"". A typical framework can be represented as a pyramid that has, at its top, a definition of sustainable urban development, the fundamental principles of eco-city planning, and the creation of a unique'Vision' for the community. From this pinnacle, the Framework divides Into a spreading tree of elements, at Increasing levels of specificity, finishing with monitoring the performance of new systems. Each level in the framework is described in the sidebar. Watershed Management: Jurisdictional boundaries for urban planning typically exclude substantial portions of the city's watershed. This can increase uncertainty and risk of failure. Eoo- Principles are broad motherhood type statements that are Intended to set the direction for all activities and to define the priorities. Stewardship of the Natural Environment Is an example of a principle. Goals elaborate upon the fundamental principles and define the ultimate condition desired. Each principles can have a number of goals associated with it. Sometimes called objectives,goals can Indicate the direction of change that Is desired. Maintain and enhance the ecological function of the site Is an example of a goal. Key strategies Identity the basic approaches that can be Implemented In order to achieve a goal or a set of goals. A goal can be linked to a number of different key strategies. Generally strategies should be selected that are known to address more than one goal,as this demonstrates a comprehensive approach and the achievement of synergies. Preserve natural drainage patterns on all silos Is an example of a key strategy. Specific Actions provide a range of activities that can be Implemented In order to fulfil the key strategies. By virtue of the clear link of key strategies with goals and principles,it Is also clear how the specify actions address the higher layers of the framework. Reduce the Impermeability of sites is an example of a specific action. Performance Indicators and Targets quantify the Impact of specific actlons,and therefore help to determine If the specific actions are being successful In their Intent. Percentage of site area covered in Impermeable surfaces Is an example of an Indicator and 10%Is an example of a desirable target. Guidelines and Speclflcatlons provide much more detailed Information on how to Implement specific actions. For example, Guidelines on Reducing Site Impermeabllitycan be prepared. Monitoring Systems close the loop of the process through tracking and measuring changes In performance on an ongoing basis. This Information can be used to demonstrate whether strategic direction is appropriate or whether further changes are required. Monitoring and communication of results are found to be linked to Improved environmental performance. city- policies need to be based upon reliable predictions of water availability and quality—Issues that can only be considered in the context of the watershed. In an effort to improve planning, a number of states and nations now insist upon DRAFT A Guide to Green Infrastructure for Canadian Munlrapslldes The Ghe*or"PY mCauWer Yw R • watershed planning as a parallel exercise to urban planning". A watershed plan analyses all of the water flows in and out of the watershed (creating a water balance) and attempts to allocate the limited resources equitably. The plan should also match the quality of water to the end use, and create watershed-wide policies to minimise risks of flood, disease, and drought. The absence of watershed planning Is especially problematic for the many cities trying to conserve scarce water resources. Without an effective watershed plan,the city is unable to optimise Investments and address wasteful practices by Industry and farms. Green Building and Development Guidelines The barriers to Implementation of green infrastructure by developers and the design community Include lack of knowledge, lack of time, fear, and perceived cost. These barriers must be overcome by working within the standard building design process. The emphasis must be on practical knowledge of solutions. In other words, Information on who are the suppliers of integrated, tested construction solutions; • what are the engineering standards for storage sizing, grit removal, aeration, pumping, plumbing; ■ what are the most economical methods of storage and plumbing systems; and • what are the maintenance requirements? Most designers of buildings must make recommendations for these types of systems given only a few hours of design time to consider alternatives. If solutions will take more time to research than standard technology, there is a built-in disincentive to change. Solutions, therefore, rely on making sustainable solutions time-efficient to adopt, or in providing fee subsidies for adoption of alternative solutions. A key to the system designer exploring these opportunities is the combination of easily accessible knowledge, successful case studies, and time-efficient design and implementation. Ideally, there will be standard details and specifications, or proprietary manufactured solutions available locally, that will remove these barriers. Once solutions are known to be available, local governments may move to include them in their approved standards, which will accelerate their adoption. Very few cities have specific regulations and guidelines that address the overall environmental performance of buildings, despite the major impact of building design on urban Infrastructure and the quality of the environment. Without a set of guidelines, it is probably Impossible to achieve significant movement towards sustalnabllity at the scale of building and site. Guidelines can be applied directly to all public sector projects. They can also be enforced in the private sector as building by-laws. More commonly the guidelines become part of an Incentives package, wherein special benefits are conferred to developers who comply. It Is also possible to Implement a revenue-neutral fund, that collects money from developers that fall to implement the guidelines, and distributes funds to those who do. Guidelines can cover a broad range of topics and can address either the development planning process, or the building design process. A recent publication by Sheltair Group for the City of Santa Monica contained 94 separate guidelines for green buildings, and Included everything from the site and form of DRAFT A Guide to Greon tnrrastructure for conadlan Munldpafto TM Sh",mow P• cawn.nr Fo buildings, to energy control systems. Each guideline contains schematics, references, technical guidance and a rating system. A portion of the Santa Monica guidelines have since been mandated by law. Experience with implementation of guidelines suggests that they work most effectively when they are objective-based, and linked to a framework of goals and targets. Guidelines also work better if they Include performance-based evaluation procedures wherever possible, since this allows developers to adopt innovative approaches as long as they still achieve the same Intent. Finally, guidelines can benefit from existing technical programs and rating systems developed by other authorities. By referencing such 'third party' standards, It becomes possible to simplify the guidelines, and adds support to larger initiatives that may provide better technical support. For example, a number of cities have implemented higher energy standards for buildings by simply specifying that developers achieve a level of performance 30%or 50% better than the national energy codes for buildings. Guidelines can.sometimes incorporate and translate environmental performance targets for the city as a whole. Monitoring targets are translated into Design Targets, so they can be understood and applied by designers and developers. For example a Monitoring Target related to habitat creation, may be to Increase the total number of bird species counted in the neighbourhood. This target translates Into the following Design Targets: ♦ percentage of open space on the site with habitat quality, or ♦ Total length of connected green spaces. In such ways it becomes possible to operationalise the city's environmental .targets during the design and construction stages. Increased use of Energy and Material flow models: The next threshold in planning technology Is the creation of a bottom-up urban forecasting model that can use a community database to predict in real time the actual costs, resource consumption, and emissions associated with development plans. Essentially the model of simulates the interaction of these elements, and aggregates the net Impacts on resource use, costs and emissions, using standard Indicators of performance. The model must capture dynamic relationships between sectors, between resources, and between supply and demand systems. Models of this type have proved capable of predicting resource consumption and impacts with a confidence of:L1 0%, for specific urban developments, or whole communities. Unfortunately the current state of the art does not provide planners or designers with access to a multi-resource, multi-sector model. Instead what has been occurring is a slow evolution towards such a model, as a wide variety of more specific applications are used for design and planning purposes. A major methodological problem is that Infrastructure adjacent to the buildings Is not just serving these buildings but, due to Its network character, other locations and buildings as well. How can the costs and benefits be apportioned? Rules of Thumb for Selecting Optimum Scale and Location: In the absence of sophisticated modelling and forecasting tools, it is very difficult for planners to Identify the best location and scale for providing Green DRAFT A Guide to Green Infrastructure for Canadfen Municipalities 1M BMYrQ"Ra CauJ4rb tro